An Assessment between D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist into the ventral tegmental area on conditioned place preference and locomotor activity
Seyed Mostafa Ahmadian, Hojjatallah Alaei, Parisa Ghahremani
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Submission||07-Apr-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||31-May-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||24-Dec-2019|
Prof. Hojjatallah Alaei
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The release of dopamine (DA) has certain roles in the induction of conditioned place preference (CPP) and motor learning in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The aim of this study was to investigate the excitatory effects of DA through DA-D1 agonist (SKF38393) and elimination of the inhibitory effects of DA through DA-D2 antagonist (eticlopride) into the VTA and its synergistic effects with an ineffective dose of morphine in the induction of CPP. Materials and Methods: Morphine (2.5 mg/kg; s. c.) did not induce a significant CPP, without any effect on the locomotor activity during the testing phase. SKF38393 (0.125, 0.5, and 1 μg/side) and eticlopride (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/side) individually or simultaneously were microinjected bilaterally into the VTA. Results: The administration of SKF38393 (1 and 2 μg/rat) with ineffective morphine and also without morphine caused CPP on test day, while eticlopride (2 μg/rat) caused CPP with morphine only. Locomotor activity increased in groups receiving D1 agonist and D2 antagonist that presumed to be caused by the reinforcing effect. In addition, the concurrent administration of ineffective doses of D1 agonist and D2 antagonist into the VTA with ineffective morphine caused CPP but not with saline. Conclusions: This study showed that there was a need for morphine to activate the reward circuit through the D2 receptor in the VTA while the administration of the D1 agonist could independently activate the reward circuit. In addition, there was a probable synergistic effect using ineffective doses of D1 and D2 receptors, in the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP.
Keywords: Conditioned place preference, dopamine-D1 receptor agonist, dopamine-D2 receptor antagonist, morphine, ventral tegmental area
|How to cite this article:|
Ahmadian SM, Alaei H, Ghahremani P. An Assessment between D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist into the ventral tegmental area on conditioned place preference and locomotor activity. Adv Biomed Res 2019;8:72
|How to cite this URL:|
Ahmadian SM, Alaei H, Ghahremani P. An Assessment between D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist into the ventral tegmental area on conditioned place preference and locomotor activity. Adv Biomed Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Oct 24];8:72. Available from: https://www.advbiores.net/text.asp?2019/8/1/72/274003
| Introduction|| |
Strong evidence in humans and animals offers that mood disturbances and drug addiction are associated with major defects within the brain's reward circuitry, which normally serves to guide our attention toward and consumption of natural rewards and ensure our survival.
The brain reward pathway definition included dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA)., Various abuse drugs can increase the concentration of dopamine (DA) in the VTA. One of the drugs of abuse that can actively stimulate this system is morphine. Morphine by influencing the receptors of mu on non-DA neurons (such as amma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the VTA and increasing the glutamate output to VTA increases the activity of DAergic neurons in the VTA and caused by increasing the release of DA in different regions of the brain such as nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)., The release of DA has certain roles in movement and motor learning, memory, reward, emotion, and cognition.,, The stimulation of DA neurons in the VTA also increases DA release from their somata and dendrites within the VTA., DA has a dual function through its receptors, which can stimulate and inhibit DAergic neurons in the VTA. DA through DA-D1 receptor (D1R) stimulates DAergic neurons and through D2R inhibits. The neurons expressing D2R are thought to work in concert with D1R.,,, DAergic neurons of the VTA contain high concentrations of D2R and D5R receptors but poor levels of D3Rs. D1 and D4 receptors are very poor or are indistinguishable in VTA DA neurons. However, D1 receptors are present on glutamatergic terminals projecting to the VTA., Released DA attached to D2 autoreceptors and regulates the pattern of firing of the DA neurons in the VTA,, and so regulates the distal release of DA in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Local autoinhibition D2Rs caused negative feedback to limit somatodendritic DA release as well. The administration of DA in short term enhances the levels of concentration of DA and reduces the excitability of DAergic neurons in the VTA and in long-term enhances the amount of DA and leads to desensitization of the D2Rs to DA.
However, the DA function on the receptors is dual action (stimulation and inhibition). There is a synergistic effect between D1Rs (such as D1 and D5 receptors) and D2Rs (such as D2, D3, and D4 receptors) in the striatum but the function, and how both systems interact in the reward circuit in the VTA remains unclear. In this study, we tried to investigate the excitatory effects of DA through D1R-like agonist (SKF38393), elimination of the inhibitory effects of DA through D2R-like antagonist (eticlopride) into the pVTA and its synergistic effect with ineffective dose of morphine and also without morphine in the induction of conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor activity.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Subjects were male adult Wistar rats (Royan; Isfahan, Iran), weighing 230–300 g (n = 6–9). Four animals were kept per cage, in a 12/12-h light/dark cycle, with water and food ad libitum and appropriate temperature (22°C–25°C). The Ethics Committee of Animal Use of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences approved the study, and all tests were performed in accordance with the instructions for Animal Care and also the use of Laboratory Animals (National Institutes of Health Publication No. 85-23), revised in 2010.
Dose–response curve for morphine
We examined the effects of five doses of morphine (1, 1.5, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg, s. c), on the CPP in this experiment. Although rats were given saline (1 ml/kg, s. c), in the vehicle group in both chambers (A and B). The dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg, i. p) was used as an ineffective dose.
Intra-ventral tegmental area microinjection of SKF38393 and eticlopride
To evaluate the effects of SKF38393 (an D1R agonist like) and eticlopride (an D2R antagonist like) on the acquisition (during the 3-day conditioning phase) of morphine-induced CPP, different doses of eticlopride (1, 2, and 4 μg/rat) and SKF38393 (0.25, 1, and 2 μg/rat), or combinations of their ineffective doses (1 and 0.25 μg/rat, respectively), were bilaterally injected into the VTA, 5 min before subcutaneous injection of ineffective morphine (2.5 mg/kg).
In addition, there were two more groups, which received the effective dose of eticlopride (2 μg/rat) and SKF38393 (1 μg/rat), without morphine administration, also in the saline paired-chamber and the control-morphine groups, saline was microinfusion into the VTA without drugs.
The drugs used in this study were morphine sulfate (Temad, Tehran, Iran) was dissolved in saline, and injected subcutaneously (SC; mg/kg; pH = 7.4), S-(−)-Eticlopride hydrochloride a DA-D2 antagonist receptor and (R)-(+)-SKF-38393 hydrochloride a DA-D1 agonist receptor (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) were dissolved in saline and they were injected into the pVTA.
Surgery and drug microinjection
Rats were anesthetized with ketamine (100 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) (i. p.) and were placed in a stereotaxic device (Stoelting, USA). Two stainless steel, 23-gauge guide cannulas were bilaterally placed 1 mm above the VTA (AP=−5.6 mm; ML= ±2.1 mm; DV=−8.5 mm) and fixed to the skull with dental cement. Two stainless steel stylets (30 gauges) were inserted into the guide cannula, in order to be kept free of debris. Each rat was placed separately in the cage and the opportunity given to recover for 7 days.
In order to drug microinjections, stylets brought out and 30-gauge injector needles were inserted 1 mm beneath the tip of the guide cannula, into the VTA. Subsequently, different doses of the SKF38393 and eticlopride or the saline were administered by the microinjection apparatus (KD Scientific, USA) bilaterally in a total volume of 0.6 μl/rat (0.3 μl in each side), over a 60-s period.
The best method to measure drug reward is apparatus of CPP. Apparatus of CPP included three chambers (A, B, and C) that includes two large chambers (A and B) with equivalent size. The walls and floor of the A chamber are black with a grid floor, while they are white and checkered, respectively, with a smooth floor in the B chamber. The C chamber was tiny and it is jointed to other chambers by a guillotine door. The time animal spent in each chamber and its locomotor activity was recorded by a video track software (ANY- maze, Stoelting Co., USA). The CPP was accomplished, using a biased method, in which the animal was devoted to the nonpreferred chamber, following the administration of ineffective morphine (2.5 mg/kg). The behavioral procedure of CPP is done in 5 successive days with three different phases: preconditioning, conditioning, and postcondit
On the first day, each rat was inserted into the C chamber, while the guillotine door was open, and the rat is permitted to move freely for 15 min. A video track software (ANY- maze, Stoelting Co., USA was used recording the activity of the animal.
It is included 3-day plan that contained six sessions (3 for saline and 3 for morphine), and each session takes a time 45 min. Guillotine gate was closed and also daily infusion was accomplished in two stages, with a 6-h interval. In the morning of the 2nd and 4th days, after injection of morphine, rats were confined to nonpreferred chamber and in the evening, after injection of saline, to preferred chamber. On the 3rd day, rats received saline in the morning and morphine in the evening.
On the 5th day, similar to the 1st day, each rat was inserted into the C chamber for 15 min, while the guillotine gate was open. The conditioning score was computed as the time spent in the morphine-paired chamber minus the spent time at the same chamber on the 1st day.
Using software, any maze was evaluated the locomotor activity. Locomotion was measured as the distance traveled in the CPP device with a scale meter, in the postconditioning phase.
At the end of the experiments, the rats were deeply anesthetized and decapitated. Then, the brain was dissected and fixed in 10% formalin for at least 5 days. In order to verify the position of the cannula in the VTA, transverse sections through the brain were cut, using a freezing microtome with the thickness of 50 μm, and examined under a microscope [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Coronal photomicrograph of bilateral microinjection site in the ventral tegmental area. 3V: 3rd ventricle, D3V: Dorsal 3rd ventricle, pVTA: Posterior ventral tegmental area|
Click here to view
Analysis of data was evaluated, using one-way ANOVA, following a significant P value, post hoc analyses (Tukey's test), and unpaired t-test for comparing specific groups using Sigma Plot software (Systat Software Inc). All data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Effect of different doses of morphine on the conditioned place preference
The results showed that there was a significant increase in the 1 and 1.5 mg/kg doses, compared with the saline group (P < 0.05), indicating a significant difference in conditioning scores [Figure 2]a but in other doses did not. Morphine in all doses did not change the locomotor activity in comparison with that of the saline group [Figure 2]b and [Figure 2]c.
|Figure 2: Morphine dose–response curve in the conditioned place preference pattern. The preference of score was calculated as the difference between the time spent in the drug-paired compartment on the 5th and 1st day (a). The changes of locomotor activity parameters on the 5th day were compared between groups. Time spent and locomotor activity parameters (line crossings and the distance traveled on the testing day [b and c, respectively]) were recorded. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. *P < 0.05 different from the saline control group (n = 6–9)|
Click here to view
Effects of excitation of dopamine D1 receptors like within the ventral tegmental area on the acquisition with dose of ineffective morphine
Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference for time spent and the locomotor activity scores, among the groups, in the acquisition phase of CPP (F [5, 43] = 2.547, P < 0.05) [Figure 3]a. The analysis showed that SKF38393 (1 and 2 μg/rat) induced a significant CPP (time spent) in the group receiving ineffective dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) in comparison with the morphine group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) [Figure 3]a but did not make a change in the locomotor activity [Figure 3]b and [Figure 3]c. The effective dose of SKF38393 (1 μg/rat), alone into the VTA, indicated a significant difference in conditioning scores (time spent) and the locomotor activity (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), compared to the group receiving saline as a vehicle control group [Figure 3]a [Figure 3]b [Figure 3]c].
|Figure 3: The effect of of bilateral administration of SKF38393, individually within the ventral tegmental area on the time spent (a) and locomotor activity (b and c). The change of preference was calculated as the difference between time spent in the drug-paired compartment on the 5th day and 1st day. The changes of locomotor activity on the 5th day were compared between groups. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean+P < 0.05,++P < 0.01 different from the vehicle control group. *p < 0.05, **P < 0.01 different from the morphine control group (n = 7–8)|
Click here to view
Effects of blockade of dopamine D2 receptors like within the ventral tegmental area on the acquisition with dose of ineffective morphine
There was a significant difference among the groups for time spent (F [5.43] = 4.281, P < 0.01) [Figure 4]a. Eticlopride (2 μg/rat) significantly increased both time spent and the locomotor activity [the distance traveled <0.05; [Figure 4]c, and line crossings P < 0.05; [Figure 4]b, in comparison with the morphine group but not with the saline group.
|Figure 4: The effect of bilateral administration of eticlopride, individually within the ventral tegmental area on the time spent (a) and locomotor activity parameters (b and c). Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean++P < 0.01 different fro m the saline control group. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 different from the morphine control group (n = 7–8)|
Click here to view
Effects of concurrent microinjection of ineffective doses of D1 agonist and D2 antagonist within the ventral tegmental area with dose of ineffective morphine
Statistical analysis showed that simultaneous microinjection of ineffective doses of SKF38393 and eticlopride (0.25 and 1 μg/rat, respectively) with dose of ineffective morphine (2.5 mg/kg) increased time spent (P < 0.05) [Figure 5]a and the locomotor activity parameters scores [the distance traveled P < 0.05; [Figure 5]c, and line crossings P < 0.05; [Figure 5]b compared to the morphine group but not with the saline control group.
|Figure 5: The effect of bilateral administration of eticlopride, individually within the ventral tegmental area on the time spent (a) and locomotor activity parameters (b and c). Data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean *P < 0.05, different from the morphine control group (n = 7–8)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The aim of this study was to investigate the excitatory effects of DA through D1R-like agonist (SKF38393) and elimination of the inhibitory effects of DA through D2R-like antagonist (eticlopride) into the pVTA and its synergistic effect with an ineffective dose of morphine and without morphine in the induction of CPP and locomotor activity.
Our results showed that the systemic administration of morphine (2.5, 5, 7.5 mg/kg) did not increase time spent but other doses (1 and 1.5 mg/kg) of morphine increased time spent in nonpreferential chamber [Figure 2]a. Furthermore, all morphine doses had no effect on the locomotor activity [Figure 2]b and [Figure 2]c. In this study, we used a dose of ineffective morphine (2.5 mg/kg), as morphine-control group for better understanding of the motivational aspects in the VTA. We found in our study that the effective dose of SKF38393 (1 and 2 μg/rat) could significantly increase the time spent in comparison to the saline control group and the morphine group [Figure 3]a, but the effective dose of eticlopride (2 μg/rat) could significantly induce CPP only in comparison to the morphine group but not with the saline control group [Figure 4]a.
Many studies have shown that DA receptors in the VTA have certain roles in movement and motor learning, memory, reward, emotion, and cognition in the reward system,,, and they have been demonstrated that play important roles in addiction to cocaine and morphine and other narcotic drugs.,, Both D1Rs like and D2Rs like in the VTA have a role in the regulation of the mesocorticolimbic rewarding system by drugs of abuse. Hence, the DA system has been reported that affect morphine-induced reward., DA has dual function through its receptors, which can stimulate and inhibit DAergic neurons in the VTA. DA through D1R stimulates DAergic neurons and through D2R inhibits. By examining the excitatory effects of DA, we could see the role of DA in the induction of CPP. A study by Ranaldi et al. found that the administration of D1R antagonist in the VTA resulted in CPP inhibition., Therefore, the performance of the D1R in this area is important in reward. In our study, it was found that the administration of the D1R agonist in the absence of morphine and also with morphine, induced CPP [Figure 3]a. These results suggest that the administration of D1R agonist triggers the release of afferents of glutamatergic from the mPFC, lateral hypothalamus, and lateral dorsal tegmentum into the VTA. It is likely that increased glutamate release in the VTA changes the subtypes of glutamate receptors and probably alters short-term plasticity in the VTA, resulting in increased glutamate sensitivity,,,, and in this way, it acts on the motivational and rewarding effects. Therefore, probably, D1R by the release of glutamate increases the activity of DAergic neurons and induces CPP.,,
It has been reported in various studies that the administration of drugs of abuse as well as food increases the concentration of DA in the VTA.,, Increased DA concentration can, in addition to the excitatory effects of D1R, cause the inhibitory effects of DA through the stimulation of D2 receptor. Different studies have shown that microinfusion of the D2R agonist, quinpirole, into the VTA prevents the cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Diminished somatodendritic D2R has newly been implicated in novelty seeking and impulsivity in humans and rodents. These character properties have been associated with drug addiction. In a study by de Jong et al. reported that in knockout of the gene encoding the D2R increased addiction-like behavior in rats responding for drug abuse. We also used the D2R antagonist in this study. In our study, the administration of D2R antagonist with ineffective morphine increased the time spent but in the absence of morphine could not [Figure 4]a. Hence, morphine increases the concentration of DA in VTA, and the removal of the D2R inhibitory effect by the D2R antagonist probably increases the activity of DAergic neurons and induces CPP.,,, In addition, the stimulatory effects of DA remain through the D1R. However, in the absence of morphine, probably, the concentration of DA in VTA is not high enough that the D2R antagonist could increase DAergic activity. Therefore, we have observed that the effective dose of D2R antagonist with ineffective morphine increased seeking behavior and induced CPP but did not without morphine.
On the other hand, the long-term use of the drugs of abuse increases the sensitivity to locomotor and time spent in the nonpreferred chamber after a short period absence of drug in rats. The mechanisms of sensitization and reward are regarded to distinguish components of the motivational effects of addictive drugs and may be mediated by different neural substrates., As have been described in several recent articles, sensitization to locomotor and reward after microinfusion of D1R agonist and D2R antagonist is a matter of concern in animals. Reward involves many neuropsychological components together: (1) the hedonic effect of pleasure (liking); (2) incitement to obtain the reward (wanting or incentive salience); and (3) reward-related learning., Mesolimbic DA maybe the most popular brain neurotransmitter candidate for liking for two decades ago, and it is not clear that causes pleasure or liking at all. However, DA more selectively intercedes a motivational mechanism of incentive salience, which is a process for wanting rewards but not for liking them.,, Increasing locomotor activity is probably due to the mechanism of sensitization to morphine-reinforcing using DAergic drugs.[50.51] Interestingly, our study showed that the administration of D1R agonist with saline [Figure 3]b and [Figure 3]c and also D2R antagonist with morphine increased locomotor activity [Figure 4]b and [Figure 4]c. Therefore, it is likely that DAergic drugs are involved in the sensitization to the locomotor activity and morphine-wanting effects.
As we observed, concurrent microinjection of ineffective doses of D1R-like agonist and D2R-like antagonist into the VTA could affect morphine-induced CPP and the locomotor activity scores compared to the morphine group but not the saline control group. This change was not deferent when each drug was microinjected separately into the VTA. It shows that there was a synergistic effect between these two drugs in the VTA [Figure 5]a [Figure 5]b [Figure 5]c].
| Conclusions|| |
Our findings, consistent with previous studies, confirmed that the DA system (D1- and D2-like receptors) had a significant role in the morphine addiction. This study showed that there was a need for morphine to activate the reward circuit through the D2R in the VTA, while the administration of the D1R agonist could independently activate the reward circuit. In addition, there was a probable cross-talk between D1Rs and D2Rs like of the VTA, in the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP. The increasing locomotor activity is probably due to the mechanism of sensitization using DAergic drugs and promoting drug-seeking behavior in the animal. These results should be further investigated in other reward measurement protocols and also in order to identify the signaling pathways and pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms, involved in this process.
A special thanks go to Drs; H. Alaei, P. Reisi for their many helpful assistance during this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
This research was funded by a grant (396127) from the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Nestler EJ, Carlezon WA Jr. The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biol Psychiatry 2006;59:1151-9.
Pessiglione M, Seymour B, Flandin G, Dolan RJ, Frith CD. Dopamine-dependent prediction errors underpin reward-seeking behaviour in humans. Nature 2006;442:1042-5.
Sanchez-Catalan MJ, Kaufling J, Georges F, Veinante P, Barrot M. The antero-posterior heterogeneity of the ventral tegmental area. Neuroscience 2014;282:198-216.
Xiao C, Ye JH. Ethanol dually modulates GABAergic synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area: Role of mu-opioid receptors. Neuroscience 2008;153:240-8.
King HE, Riley AL. A history of morphine-induced taste aversion learning fails to affect morphine-induced place preference conditioning in rats. Learn Behav 2013;41:433-42.
Pessiglione M, Schmidt L, Draganski B, Kalisch R, Lau H, Dolan RJ, et al.
How the brain translates money into force: A neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation. Science 2007;316:904-6.
Carta M, Bezard E. Contribution of pre-synaptic mechanisms to L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Neuroscience 2011;198:245-51.
Palmiter RD. Dopamine signaling as a neural correlate of consciousness. Neuroscience 2011;198:213-20.
Rice ME, Cragg SJ, Greenfield SA. Characteristics of electrically evoked somatodendritic dopamine release in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in vitro
. J Neurophysiol 1997;77:853-62.
Cragg S, Rice ME, Greenfield SA. Heterogeneity of electrically evoked dopamine release and reuptake in substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and striatum. J Neurophysiol 1997;77:863-73.
Farahimanesh S, Moradi M, Nazari-Serenjeh F, Zarrabian S, Haghparast A. Role of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors within the ventral tegmental area in stress-induced and drug priming-induced reinstatement of morphine seeking in rats. Behav Pharmacol 2018;29:426-36.
Nimitvilai S, Brodie MS. Reversal of prolonged dopamine inhibition of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010;333:555-63.
Isomura Y, Harukuni R, Takekawa T, Aizawa H, Fukai T. Microcircuitry coordination of cortical motor information in self-initiation of voluntary movements. Nat Neurosci 2009;12:1586-93.
Salamone JD, Correa M, Farrar AM, Nunes EJ, Pardo M. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort. Front Behav Neurosci 2009;3:13.
Nimitvilai S, Herman M, You C, Arora DS, McElvain MA, Roberto M, et al.
Dopamine D2 receptor desensitization by dopamine or corticotropin releasing factor in ventral tegmental area neurons is associated with increased glutamate release. Neuropharmacology 2014;82:28-40.
Kalivas PW, Duffy P. D1 receptors modulate glutamate transmission in the ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci 1995;15:5379-88.
Beckstead MJ, Grandy DK, Wickman K, Williams JT. Vesicular dopamine release elicits an inhibitory postsynaptic current in midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuron 2004;42:939-46.
Zhou FW, Jin Y, Matta SG, Xu M, Zhou FM. An ultra-short dopamine pathway regulates basal ganglia output. J Neurosci 2009;29:10424-35.
Gantz SC, Bunzow JR, Williams JT. Spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents mediated by a G protein-coupled receptor. Neuron 2013;78:807-12.
Santiago M, Westerink BH. Characterization and pharmacological responsiveness of dopamine release recorded by microdialysis in the substantia nigra of conscious rats. J Neurochem 1991;57:738-47.
Cragg SJ, Greenfield SA. Differential autoreceptor control of somatodendritic and axon terminal dopamine release in substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and striatum. J Neurosci 1997;17:5738-46.
de Jong JW, Roelofs TJ, Mol FM, Hillen AE, Meijboom KE, Luijendijk MC, et al.
Reducing ventral tegmental dopamine D2 receptor expression selectively boosts incentive motivation. Neuropsychopharmacology 2015;40:2085-95.
Paxinos G, Watson C. The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates in Stereotaxic Coordinates. Elsevier; 2007.
Rodd ZA, Bell RL, Oster SM, Toalston JE, Pommer TJ, McBride WJ, et al.
Serotonin-3 receptors in the posterior ventral tegmental area regulate ethanol self-administration of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcohol 2010;44:245-55.
Omelchenko N, Sesack SR. Glutamate synaptic inputs to ventral tegmental area neurons in the rat derive primarily from subcortical sources. Neuroscience 2007;146:1259-74.
Tzschentke TM. Measuring reward with the conditioned place preference paradigm: A comprehensive review of drug effects, recent progress and new issues. Prog Neurobiol 1998;56:613-72.
Steketee JD, Kalivas PW. Drug wanting: Behavioral sensitization and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Pharmacol Rev 2011;63:348-65.
Ranaldi R, Wise RA. Blockade of D1 dopamine receptors in the ventral tegmental area decreases cocaine reward: Possible role for dendritically released dopamine. J Neurosci 2001;21:5841-6.
Sharf R, Lee DY, Ranaldi R. Microinjections of SCH 23390 in the ventral tegmental area reduce operant responding under a progressive ratio schedule of food reinforcement in rats. Brain Res 2005;1033:179-85.
Carr DB, Sesack SR. Projections from the rat prefrontal cortex to the ventral tegmental area: Target specificity in the synaptic associations with mesoaccumbens and mesocortical neurons. J Neurosci 2000;20:3864-73.
Russo SJ, Nestler EJ. The brain reward circuitry in mood disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci 2013;14:609-25.
Centonze D, Grande C, Saulle E, Martin AB, Gubellini P, Pavón N, et al.
Distinct roles of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in motor activity and striatal synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 2003;23:8506-12.
Reynolds JN, Wickens JR. Dopamine-dependent plasticity of corticostriatal synapses. Neural Netw 2002;15:507-21.
Calabresi P, Picconi B, Tozzi A, Di Filippo M. Dopamine-mediated regulation of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. Trends Neurosci 2007;30:211-9.
Wolf ME, Mangiavacchi S, Sun X. Mechanisms by which dopamine receptors may influence synaptic plasticity. Ann N
Y Acad Sci 2003;1003:241-9.
David V, Besson M, Changeux JP, Granon S, Cazala P. Reinforcing effects of nicotine microinjections into the ventral tegmental area of mice: Dependence on cholinergic nicotinic and dopaminergic D1 receptors. Neuropharmacology 2006;50:1030-40.
Cameron DL, Williams JT. Dopamine D1 receptors facilitate transmitter release. Nature 1993;366 (6453):344-7.
Yager LM, Garcia AF, Wunsch AM, Ferguson SM. The ins and outs of the striatum: Role in drug addiction. Neuroscience 2015;301:529-41.
Xue Y, Steketee JD, Rebec GV, Sun W. Activation of D2
-like receptors in rat ventral tegmental area inhibits cocaine-reinstated drug-seeking behavior. Eur J Neurosci 2011;33:1291-8.
Zald DH, Cowan RL, Riccardi P, Baldwin RM, Ansari MS, Li R, et al.
Midbrain dopamine receptor availability is inversely associated with novelty-seeking traits in humans. J Neurosci 2008;28:14372-8.
Tournier BB, Steimer T, Millet P, Moulin-Sallanon M, Vallet P, Ibañez V, et al.
Innately low D2 receptor availability is associated with high novelty-seeking and enhanced behavioural sensitization to amphetamine. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2013;16:1819-34.
Jupp B, Dalley JW. Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: Etiological insights from neuroimaging studies. Neuropharmacology 2014;76(Pt B):487-97.
Robinson TE, Berridge KC. The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1993;18:247-91.
Singh ME, Verty AN, McGregor IS, Mallet PE. A cannabinoid receptor antagonist attenuates conditioned place preference but not behavioural sensitization to morphine. Brain Res 2004;1026:244-53.
Kringelbach ML, Berridge KC. Pleasures of the Brain: Series in Affective Science 2010.
Kringelbach ML, Stein A, van Hartevelt TJ. The functional human neuroanatomy of food pleasure cycles. Physiol Behav 2012;106:307-16.
Smith KS, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW. Disentangling pleasure from incentive salience and learning signals in brain reward circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;108:E255-64.
Saunders BT, Robinson TE. The role of dopamine in the accumbens core in the expression of pavlovian-conditioned responses. Eur J Neurosci 2012;36:2521-32.
Leyton M. Dopamine and the regulation of mood and motivational states in humans. TIJN 2008;11:69.
Tanabe LM, Suto N, Creekmore E, Steinmiller CL, Vezina P. Blockade of D2 dopamine receptors in the VTA induces a long-lasting enhancement of the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine. Behav Pharmacol 2004;15:387-95.
Stewart J, Vezina P. Microinjections of Sch-23390 into the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars reticulata attenuate the development of sensitization to the locomotor activating effects of systemic amphetamine. Brain Res 1989;495:401-6.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]