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Reference range of the weekly uterine cervical length at 8 to 38 weeks of gestation in the center of Iran
Esmat Jafari-Dehkordi, Atoosa Adibi, Mehri Sirus
2015, 4:115 (29 May 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.157839  PMID:26261817
Background: There is an inverse relation between the uterine cervical length during pregnancy and the frequency of preterm delivery. The purpose of this study was to construct a chart and evaluate the cervical length at 8 to 38 weeks of normal gestation in the center of Iran. Materials and Methods: Uterine cervical length was measured on 930 asymptomatic pregnant women by abdominal ultrasonographic technique. For statistical evaluation, regression analysis and calculation of percentiles were performed. Results: Our data show a significant decrease in uterine cervical length with increasing gestational age. The mean uterine cervical length exhibits minimal changes from 10 to 24 weeks for most women in this study, although the shortening is more prominent at 33 to 38 weeks' gestation. The mean shortening of the uterine cervical length between the second and the ninth months was 14.82% (P < 0.05). Also, the cervical length means in trimesters 1, 2 and 3 were 39.30 ± 4.33, 38.28 ± 5.13 and 36.58 ± 4.58 mm, respectively. The third trimester showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in cervical length compared to the first and second trimesters (6.92% and 4.44%, respectively). New charts with the 5 th , 10 th , 50 th , 90 th , and 95 th percentile are presented. Conclusion: Our study provides a new chart and reference values for normal uterine cervical length throughout gestation based on a large sample in the center of Iran. There was a progressive decrease in mean uterine cervical length with increasing gestational age in the population of this study. Our established charts for uterine cervical length throughout gestation might be more useful than a single cut-off value for more efficient prevention and management of preterm birth.
  12,788 195 -
Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery
Nouri Nayerossadat, Talebi Maedeh, Palizban Abas Ali
2012, 1:27 (6 July 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.98152  PMID:23210086
Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells) and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein-Barr virus)] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection) and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers). In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed.
  10,252 2,484 198
Optimization of Taq DNA polymerase enzyme expression in Escherichia coli
Fateme Moazen, Ali Rastegari, Sayed Mehdi Hoseini, Mojtaba Panjehpour, Mehran Miroliaei, Hamid Mir Mohammad Sadeghi
2012, 1:82 (31 October 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.103004  PMID:23326812
Background: In the present study, we optimized the experimental conditions using pET15b expression vector to obtain large amounts of Taq DNA polymerase. Materials and Methods: Correct framing of the gene in the expression vector pET15b and its orientation were analyzed by digestion and sequencing. Production of Taq DNA polymerase in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells was induced by incubation with different concentrations of IPTG. Optimum production occurred with the addition of 1mM IPTG for 2h. The activity of the obtained enzyme was measured by comparing the intensities of the produced DNA bands in PCR reactions. Results: Recombinant plasmid containing taq polymerase gene was confirmed by restriction digestion and DNA sequencing. Purified protein was identified by Western blotting. Optimum condition for the production of the enzyme was induction with 1mM IPTG for 23h. Addition of NP40 increased enzyme stability. Conclusion: We expressed the recombinant Taq DNA polymerase in E. coli using a T7based promoter system and obtained an active and stable enzyme.
  5,395 1,857 -
Potent health effects of pomegranate
Aida Zarfeshany, Sedigheh Asgary, Shaghayegh Haghjoo Javanmard
2014, 3:100 (25 March 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.129371  PMID:24800189
Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.
  5,316 1,259 33
Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in mice skin upon ultraviolet B exposure - Seborrheic Keratosis as a coincidental and unique finding
Azad K Saeed, Nabil Salmo
2012, 1:59 (28 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.100178  PMID:23326790
Background: Ultraviolet B (UVB) is the most damaging component of sunlight. It rapidly activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in excessive quantities that quickly overwhelm tissue antioxidants. Setting and Design: To demonstrate the effects of UVB radiation on EGFR expression in mice skin and to evaluate the role of antioxidants in the exposed group. Materials and Methods: After obtaining the approval of the ethical committee, forty mice from BALB/c strain were used in this experiment and were allocated into 3 groups; 10 (control group); 15 (exposure group); and 15 (exposed and treated with antioxidants). Antioxidants were administered through subcutaneous injection. Skin biopsies from all groups were stained with EGFR antibodies. Total antioxidant status (TAS) was evaluated in all groups. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA, Duncan's test, and Pearson's Correlation. Results: The highest EGFR expression in exposure group was of score 3 + (53%). The highest EGFR expression in treatment group was score 0 (40%). Apoptotic bodies and dermal mast cells increased in exposure group while decreased in treatment group. The mean values for TAS were measured for each group; control group = 1.2 mmol/l; exposure group = 0.87 mmol/l; treatment group =1.3 mmol/l. Conclusions: UVB led to Seborrheic Keratosis (SK) in mice through enhancement of EGFR expression. Antioxidants effectively reduced UVB-induced SK, reduced epidermal changes, apoptotic bodies, and decreased dermal mast cells. TAS measurement declined in exposure group, while it was within normal range in most treated cases.
  5,847 567 5
Lithium carbonate inducing disorders in three parameters of rat sperm
Shima Toghyani, Gholam R Dashti, Nasim Hayati Roudbari, Shaila Rouzbehani, Ramesh Monajemi
2013, 2:55 (30 July 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.115793  PMID:24223370
Background: Lithium has a significant impact in reducing the symptoms of bipolar mania but in long periods of use with therapeutic doses can cause several disorders in various organs including the reproductive system. In this study, the effect of lithium on the sperm concentration and motility and forms of abnormal cells has been examined. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats under the 48-day treatment with lithium carbonate at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg bw/day were kept in standard conditions. At the end of this period, sperm cells isolated from the cauda epididymis were counted, motility was estimated, and stained with smear papanicolaou stain. Results: In lithium-treated groups, the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm quality were reduced and was seen in a dose-dependent manner. Discussion: Lithium alters intracellular signaling pathways such as inositol phosphate metabolic cycle and cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP) system and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. It also interferes in the division of sex cells to produce mature sperm and showed changes in the sperm cell membrane, function, and structure.
  5,482 381 4
The course and outcome of pregnancy and neonatal situation in epileptic women
Mohammad Reza Najafi, Farnoosh Sonbolestan, Seyed Ali Sonbolestan, Mohammad Zare, Jafar Mehvari, Shahrokh Noori Meshkati
2012, 1:4 (28 March 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.94426  PMID:23210063
Background: Epilepsy is a rare neurologic disorder during pregnancy. Despite its rarity, it could cause different clinical problems in this natural phenomenon of a woman's life. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the course of pregnancy and labor and their outcome in epileptic and healthy women. Materials and Methods: This study was performed during years 2009--2011 in Alzahra and Beheshti hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 51 pregnant women, who were known cases of epilepsy and were on antiepileptic drugs treatment for at least 3 months, were compared with 47 matched healthy pregnant women without epilepsy. They were followed before and during their pregnancy in several visits and all of their neurologic and obstetric information were collected. For statistical analysis of continuous variables, the t-test was used. The chi-square test was used for dichotomous variables. Results: The rate of monotherapy was more than polytheraphy especially during the pregnancy. The epileptic attacks stopped in majority of patients during the pregnancy. Vaginal bleeding (P=0.020) and abortion (P=0.015) were significantly more frequent among epileptic mothers. The gestational age was lower meaningfully (P= 0.010) in epileptic patients' neonates and the first minute Apgar score was lower in these babies too (P=0.028). Conclusions: Antiepileptic drugs could have some unsuitable effects on pregnancy course especially by increasing the rate of abortion, preterm labor, and vaginal bleeding. Their adverse effects on neonates' health could not be neglected.
  4,840 907 5
Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview
Sathish Babu Murugaiyan, Ramesh Ramasamy, Niranjan Gopal, V Kuzhandaivelu
2014, 3:67 (27 January 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.125848  PMID:24627875
Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria.
  4,637 1,029 18
Transcriptomic comparison of osteopontin, osteocalcin and core binding factor 1 genes between human adipose derived differentiated osteoblasts and native osteoblasts
Vahid Bahrambeigi, Rasoul Salehi, Batool Hashemibeni, Ebrahim Esfandiari
2012, 1:8 (28 March 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.94431  PMID:23210067
Background: There are significant limitations in repair of irrecoverable bone defects. Stem-cell therapy is a promising approach for the construction of bone tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been introduced as basic tools for bone tissue generation. Through MSCs, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are more interesting. Since the similarity of native osteoblasts and differentiated osteoblasts from ADSCs in terms of gene expression pattern is unknown, this study was designed to compare gene expression patterns of some genes involved in osteogenesis between human native osteoblasts and adipose-derived differentiated osteoblasts. Materials and Methods: Realtime qRT-PCR was used for studying the gene expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and core binding factor alpha 1 (Cbfa1) in human native osteoblasts and adipose derived osteogenic osteoblasts at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 of differentiation. Results: This study demonstrated that native osteoblasts and differentiated osteoblasts, cultured in common osteogenic medium, have significant differences in gene expression levels for osteocalcin and osteopontin. Compared to native osteoblasts, these genes are expressed lower in all four groups of differentiated osteoblastic cells. We also found, there is a progressive increase in cbfa1 expression over the differentiation period of ADSCs from day 7 to day 28. Conclusions: Our findings help for better assessment of adipose-derived differentiated cells as a source for cell-based therapy.
  4,516 615 6
Music therapy: An effective approach in improving social skills of children with autism
Seyyed Nabiollah Ghasemtabar, Mahbubeh Hosseini, Irandokht Fayyaz, Saeid Arab, Hamed Naghashian, Zahra Poudineh
2015, 4:157 (27 July 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.161584  PMID:26380242
Background: The existing methodological weakness in conducted researches concerning music therapy (MT) for children with autism led to ambiguity and confusion in this scope of studies. The aim of the present research is to identify the effectiveness of MT method in improving social skills of children with autism and its stability, as well. Materials and Methods: In the form of a clinical trial study with design of pretest/posttest/follow-up with control group, among the children with autism in community of Tehran city, on the basis of childhood autism rating scale, 27 children with mild to moderate autism were chosen and were divided into two groups of experiment (n = 13), and control (n = 14). Social skills' level of both groups was measured and recorded with the help of social skills rating system scale. The children of the experiment group participated in MT programs of Orff-Schulwerk for 45 days in 12 sessions (two sessions of 1-h/week), whereas the control group received no intervention. The data were analyzed with Statistic Package For Social Science (SPSS) software t-test and analysis of covariance was used to compare groups. Results: In posttest, the results of covariance analysis showed a significant increase in social skills' scores of the experiment group (P < 0.001). Also, results of the paired-sample t-test showed that the effectiveness of MT has been persistent up to the follow-up phase. Conclusions: The study showed that MT is an effective method with deep and consistent effects on improving social skills of children with autism.
  3,788 1,176 5
Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum
Abolfazl Aslani, Sahar Rafiei
2012, 1:57 (28 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.100175  PMID:23326788
Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Results: Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F 19-SC and F 20-SC , respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.
  4,253 666 4
Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33) and asthma
Rahim Farahani, Roya Sherkat, Mazdak Ganjalikhani Hakemi, Nahid Eskandari, Reza Yazdani
2014, 3:127 (28 May 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.133249  PMID:24949298
Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th) 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33) in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.
  3,718 1,185 26
Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group
Bahram Aminmansour, Hossein Nikbakht, Abbas Ghorbani, Majid Rezvani, Paiman Rahmani, Mostaffa Torkashvand, Mohammadamin Nourian, Mehran Moradi
2012, 1:58 (28 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.100176  PMID:23326789
Background: Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI), many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D and progesterone on brain injury treatment after brain trauma. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on patients with severe brain trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8) from April to September, 2011. The patients were divided to 3 groups (placebo, progesterone, progesterone-vitamin D), each with 20 people. Upon the patients' admission, their GCS and demographic information were recorded. After 3 months, they were reassessed, and their GCS and GOS (Glasgow outcome scale) were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Results: Before intervention, GCS mean of the placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D groups were 6.3 ± 0.88, 6.31 ± 0.87, and 6 ± 0.88, respectively. They increased to 9.16 ± 1.11, 10.25 ± 1.34, and 11.27 ± 2.27, respectively 3 months after intervention. There was a significant difference among GCS means of the 3 groups (P-value = 0.001). GOS was classified to 2 main categories of favorable and unfavorable recovery, of which, favorable recovery in placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D was 25%, 45%, and 60%, respectively which showed a statistical significant difference among the groups (P-value = 0.03). Conclusion: The results showed that recovery rate in patients with severe brain trauma in the group receiving progesterone and vitamin D together was significantly higher than that of progesterone group, which was in turn higher than that of placebo group.
  4,162 588 25
A brief study of toxic effects of some medicinal herbs on kidney
Mohammad Asif
2012, 1:44 (28 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.100144  PMID:23326775
Increased use of complementary and alternative herbal medicines in the treatment of various diseases.Some herbal therapies may be causes of potential toxicity that may be renal toxicity caused by the ingestion of herbs. The goal of this study is the toxic and beneficial effects of medicinal herbs on renal health by which evidence for benefit or toxicity has been found. Included are nephrotoxicity from aristolochic acid and other components within herbs, herb-drug interactions, heavy metal toxicity in herbs and adulterants during careless preparation of herbal medicine, resulting in adverse renal effects and renal toxicity from contaminants within the extracts. The review aims to provide knowledge and guide to encourage future toxicity studies on the kidney by medicinal herbs.
  3,958 735 18
Effects of preemptive analgesia with celecoxib or acetaminophen on postoperative pain relief following lower extremity orthopedic surgery
Parviz Kashefi, Azim Honarmand, Mohammadreza Safavi
2012, 1:66 (28 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.100197  PMID:23459777
Background: Efficacy of preemptive analgesia with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in comparison with acetaminophen is controversial. The present study evaluates the preemptive analgesia efficacy of celecoxib and acetaminophen in comparison with placebo for postoperative pain relief in patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Ninetypatients eligible for elective distal extremity surgery were categorized in three groups: group C includedpatients who received oral celecoxib 200 mg 2 h before surgery; group A included those who received oral acetaminophen 320 mg 2 h before surgery; and group P included those who received oral placebo 2 h before surgery. Pain scores were recorded at 4, 12, and 24 h after operation. Results: The pain scores 4 h after operation was significantly less in group C than in groups A and P (4.7±1.7 vs. 5±1.5 vs. 6.8±1.7, respectively, P = 0.015). No significant difference was noted in pain scores at 12 h (4.6±2, 4.9±1.9, 4.3±1.4 in group A, group C, group P, respectively P > 0.05) and 24 h (3.1±1.7, 3.0±1.4, 3.3±1.7 in group A, group C, group P, respectively, P > 0.05) after operation among the three groups. Conclusion: Using oral celecoxib 200 mg 2 h before operation is better thanusing oral acetaminophen 320 mg 2 h before the beginning of surgery for control of postoperative pain in patients who underwent lower extremity orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia.
  3,837 660 11
Adding different doses of intrathecal magnesium sulfate for spinal anesthesia in the cesarean section: A prospective double blind randomized trial
Mitra Jabalameli, Seyed Hamid Pakzadmoghadam
2012, 1:7 (11 May 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.94430  PMID:23210066
Background: There is uncertainty as to whether addition of magnesium sulfate to spinal local anesthetics improves quality and duration of block in the caesarean section. In this randomized double blind clinical trial study, we investigated the effect of adding different doses of intrathecal magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine in the caesarean section. Materials and Methods: After institutional approval and obtaining informed patient consent, 132 ASA physical status I-II women undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia were randomized to four groups: 1−2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.2 cc normal saline (group C) 2− 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.1 cc normal saline+ 0.1 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M 50 ) 3− 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.05 cc normal saline+ 0.15 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M 75 ) 4− 2.5 cc Bupivacaine 0.5%+ 0.2 cc magnesium sulfate 50% (group M 100 ). Patients and staff involved in data collections were unaware of the patient group assignment. We recorded the following: onset and duration of block, time to complete motor block recovery, and analgesic requirement. Results: Magnesium sulfate caused a delay in the onset of both sensory and motor blockade. The duration of sensory and motor block were longer in M 75 and M 100 groups than group C (P < 0.001). Recovery time was shorter in group C (P < 0.001) and analgesic requirement was more in group C than others (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In patients undergoing the caesarean section under hyperbaric bupivacaine spinal anesthesia, the addition of 50, 75, or 100 mg magnesium sulfate provides safe and effective anesthesia, but 75 mg of this drug was enough to lead a significant delay in the onset of both sensory and motor blockade, and prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade, without increasing major side effects.
  3,771 644 5
Efficient transdifferentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into Schwann-like cells: A promise for treatment of demyelinating diseases
Shanhaz Razavi, Nafiseh Ahmadi, Mohammad Kazemi, Mohammad Mardani, Ebrahim Esfandiari
2012, 1:12 (11 May 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.96067  PMID:23210071
Background: Schwann cells (SCs) can provide a suitable option for treatment not only diseases of peripheral nervous system (PNS), but also diseases of central nervous system (CNS). It is difficult to obtain sufficient large number of SCs for clinical purpose because of their restricted mitotic activity, and by sacrificing one or more functioning nerves with the consequence of loss of sensation. So, providing an alternative source for transplantation is desired. The aim of this study was isolation, characterization of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), and transdifferentiation into Schwann-cells. Materials and Methods: After isolation of ADSCs by mechanical and enzymatic digestion of adipose samples, characterization human ADSCs using flow cytometry was carried out. Human ADSCs were sequentially treated with various factors for neurosphere formation and terminal differentiation into Schwann-like cells. We used Schwann cell markers, GFAP and S100 to confirm the effectiveness of the differentiation of human ADSCs using Immunostaining and real time RT-PCR techniques. Results: Flow cytometry analysis of ADSC showed isolated stem cells were positive for CD90 and CD44 markers of mesenchymal stem cells, but for CD45 and CD34 markers were negative. Dual immunofluorescence staining and real time RT-PCR analysis for GFAP and S100 markers were revealed that approximately 90% of differentiated cells expressed co-markers. Conclusion: We indicated that human ADSCs have a suitable option to induce Schwann-like cells for autologous transplantation, offer promise for treatment in demyelinating diseases.
  3,752 660 22
In silico design, construction and cloning of Trastuzumab humanized monoclonal antibody: A possible biosimilar for Herceptin
Soudabeh Akbarzadeh-Sharbaf, Bagher Yakhchali, Zarrin Minuchehr, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Sirous Zeinali
2012, 1:21 (6 July 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.98122  PMID:23210080
Background: There is a novel hypothesis in that antibodies may have specificity for two distinct antigens that have been named "dual specificity." This hypothesis was evaluated for some defined therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, Bevacizumab, and Cetuximab. In silico design and construction of expression vectors for trastuzumab monoclonal antibody also in this work were performed. Materials and Methods: First, in bioinformatics studies the 3D structures of concerned mAbs were obtained from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Three-dimensional structural alignments were performed with SIM and MUSTANG softwares. AutoDock4.2 software also was used for the docking analysis. Second, the suitable genes for trastuzumab heavy and light chains were designed, synthesized, and cloned in the prokaryotic vector. These fragments individually were PCR amplified and cloned into pcDNA™ 3.3-TOPO® and pOptiVEC™ TOPO® shuttle vectors, using standard methods. Results: First, many bioinformatics tools and softwares were applied but we did not meet any new dual specificity in the selected antibodies. In the following step, the suitable expression cascade for the heavy and light chains of Trastuzumab therapeutic mAb were designed and constructed. Gene cloning was successfully performed and created constructs were confirmed using gene mapping and sequencing. Conclusions: This study was based on a recently developed technology for mAb expression in mammalian cells. The obtained constructs could be successfully used for biosimilar recombinant mAb production in CHO DG44 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene deficient cell line in the suspension culture medium.
  3,435 907 2
Comparison of Alopecia severity and blood level of testosterone in men suffering schizophrenia with control group
Gholam Reza Kheirabadi, Ali Yazdani, Leila Golfam
2013, 2:58 (30 July 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.115801  PMID:24223373
Background: Testosterone causes Alopecia that is related to functional testosterone and end organ sensitivity to testosterone. Studies conducted on the relationship of schizophrenia and testosterone have reported different findings. This study was designed to measure the extent of Alopecia in schizophrenic patients which is one of the most important signs of sensitivity to Androgens. Materials and Methods : In a cross-sectional study, 98 schizophrenic patients and 95 person of normal population encountered to study in two groups considering inclusion criteria and completing a consent form, in the psychiatric ward of Noor Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Meanwhile, the record of necessary demographic information a blood sample was taken from every selected person to measure the blood level of testosterone. The severity of Alopecia was measured using Hamilton and Norwood criterion in a blindness condition. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 19 software and statistical tests of χ2 and logistic Regression. Results: The mean blood level of testosterone in both studied and control groups were 458.80 ± 103 and 476.34 ± 108, respectively, having no significant difference ( P > 0.05). There was no significant relationship in both groups between Alopecia severity and the blood level of testosterone. And in comparison of two groups, providing Androgenic Alopecia with a degree higher than three in Hamilton Scale, schizophrenia risk decreases 8.627 times. Conclusion: Sensitivity to Androgens and Alopecia probably plays a protective role against schizophrenia, and if Alopecia rate exceeds the rate of grade 2 Hamilton, the risk of schizophrenia decreases 8.62 times.
  4,133 205 1
Comparison of SYBR Green and TaqMan methods in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of four adenosine receptor subtypes
Mohamadhasan Tajadini, Mojtaba Panjehpour, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard
2014, 3:85 (28 February 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.127998  PMID:24761393
Background: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is based on the revolutionary method of PCR. This technique is the result of PCR enormous sensitivity and real-time monitoring combination. In quantitative gene expression analysis, two methods have more popularity, SYBR Green and TaqMan, SYBR Green is relatively cost benefit and easy to use and technically based on binding the fluorescent dye to double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) where TaqMan method has more expensive and based on dual labeled oligonucleotide and exonuclease activity of Taq polymerase enzyme. Specificity is the most important concern with the usage of any non-specific dsDNA-binding Dyes such as SYBR Green whiles more specificity showed by labeled oligonucleotide method such as TaqMan. In this study, we compared two common RT PCR methods, TaqMan and SYBR Green in measurement gene expression profile of adenosine receptors. Materials and Methods: Gene expression profiles of A1, A2A, A2B and A3 Adenosine receptors were analyzed by optimized TaqMan and SYBR Green quantitative RT PCR in breast cancer tissues. Primary expression data was normalizing by B. actin reference gene. Results: Efficiencies were calculated more than 95% for TaqMan and SYBR Green methods in all genes. The correlations between means of normalized data of each gene in two methods were positive and significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Data analysis showed that with the use of high performance primer and by use proper protocols and material we can make precise data by SYBR Green as TaqMan method. In other word by optimization of SYBR Green method, its performance and quality could be comparable to TaqMan method.
  3,173 909 22
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy of gastroc-soleus trigger points in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Alireza Moghtaderi, Saeid Khosrawi, Farnaz Dehghan
2014, 3:99 (25 March 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.129369  PMID:24800188
Background: Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an alternative treatment for refractory cases of plantar fasciitis. Studies also demonstrated that ESWT may be an appropriate treatment for myofascial trigger points. This study was designed to evaluate its effectiveness by comparing the ESWT of Gastrocnemius/Soleus (gastroc-soleus) trigger points and heel region with the ESWT of the heel region alone. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 40 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, divided randomly to case (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The case group received ESWT for the heel region and for the gastroc-soleus trigger points. The control group received ESWT just for the heel region. The protocol was the same in both groups and they were treated for three sessions every week. The pain score (100 mm visual analog score [VAS]) and the modified Roles and Maudsley score was evaluated before the first session and eight weeks after the last session. Results: Eight weeks after the last session, although the mean VAS had decreased significantly in both groups, this decrement was more significant in the case group. (P = 0.04). According to the modified Roles and Maudsley score, there was a significant improvement in both the case (P < 0.001) and control (P = 0.01) groups, eight weeks after treatment, but there were significantly better results in the case group. Conclusion: The combination of ESWT for both plantar fasciitis and gastroc-soleus trigger points in treating patients with plantar fasciitis is more effective than utilizing it solely for plantar fasciitis.
  3,343 728 15
Effect of Royal Jelly on spatial learning and memory in rat model of streptozotocin-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease
Zohre Zamani, Parham Reisi, Hojjatallah Alaei, Ali Asghar Pilehvarian
2012, 1:26 (6 July 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.98150  PMID:23210085
Background: It has been recently demonstrated that Royal jelly (RJ) has a beneficial role on neural functions. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impairments of learning and memory. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effect of RJ on spatial learning and memory in rats after intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). Materials and Methods: Rats were infused bilaterally with an icv injection of STZ, while sham rats received vehicle only. The rats were feed with RJ-contained food (3% w/w) (lyophilized RJ mixed with powdered regular food) or regular food for 10 days. Then spatial learning and memory was tested in the rats by Morris water maze test. Results: Results showed that in icv-STZ group latency and path length were increased as compared to sham group, also icv-STZ rats less remembered the target quadrant that previously the platform was located; however, these were protected significantly in STZ group that received RJ-containing food. Conclusions: Our findings support the potential neuroprotective role of RJ and its helpful effects in AD.
  3,475 589 11
Predicting efficiency of post-induction mask ventilation based on demographic and anatomical factors
Mahmoud Saghaei, Hamid Shetabi, Mohammad Golparvar
2012, 1:10 (11 May 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.96056  PMID:23210069
Background: Failure to ventilate patients by mask leads to serious complications especially if associated with difficult intubation. Previous studies have used subjective and indirect measures to evaluate difficulty in mask ventilation, which are associated with high inter-observer discrepancies. In this study, we have defined and used efficiency of mask ventilation (EMV) as an objective and direct surrogate for ease of mask ventilation in patients undergoing GA and mask ventilation using neuromuscular relaxation. Materials and Methods: 1050 adult patients prospectively were evaluated with respect to different patients demographic and physical factors and EMV. EMV was defined as the ratio of minute ventilation via anesthesia mask to that via tracheal tube expressed as percentage. Edentolous patients were ventilated using lip-over-mask techniques. Separate analyses were done for edentolous and non-edentolous patients. Results: EMV in edentolous patients (n=269) using the lip-over-mask method was relatively high (90.9 ± 14.3%, 60.14-128.57 range). The result of multiple regression analysis in patients with normal denture determined receded chin, presence of beard, male gender, high Mallampati classes, high neck circumference, low inter-incisors gap, and old age as independent factors for estimating EMV. A regression formula for predicting EMV was developed which had an acceptable R-square value with a good model fit. Conclusions: Using EMV is an easy and reliable tool for measuring efficiency of mask ventilation. Based on the result of this study, EMV can be estimated from patient's demographic and physical factors. In edentolous patients, using the lip-over-mask method results in adequate ventilation of lungs.
  3,733 296 -
Micronucleus investigation in human buccal epithelial cells of gutkha users
Smita Jyoti, Saif Khan, Mohammad Afzal, Yasir Hasan Siddique
2012, 1:35 (28 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.100128  PMID:23326766
Background: Gutkha is a cheap and convenient betel quid substitute, which is popular among all age groups. Various studies reveal its carcinogenic nature that leads to oral submucosus fibrosis and increases the chances of oral cancer. The micronucleus (MN) assay in exfoliated mucosal cells is a useful method for observing genetic damage in humans. Aim: To observe the genotoxic effect of gutkha on human buccal epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: The MN assay was performed to assess the frequency of MN in human buccal epithelial cells. The study comprises 60 individuals of which 30 individuals were gutkha chewers and another 30 were nonusers (control). The MN frequency was scored to estimate the genotoxic damage. Results: In gutkha users, the frequency of MN was highly significant (17.4 ± 0.944) as compared with nonusers (control) groups (4.53 ± 0.331) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The MN assay in human buccal epithelial cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. Asignificantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells are found among gutkha users.
  3,517 489 4
Design, formulation and evaluation of a mucoadhesive gel from Quercus brantii L. and coriandrum sativum L. as periodontal drug delivery
Abolfazl Aslani, Alireza Ghannadi, Hajar Najafi
2013, 2:21 (6 March 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9175.108007  PMID:23977649
Background: Periodontitis is inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms. Intra-periodontal pocket, mucoadhesive drug delivery systems have been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to formulate a mucoadhesive gel from the seed hull of Quercus brantii and fruits of Coriandrum sativum for the treatment of periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The semisolid concentrated extracts were incorporated in gel base. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared using carbopol 940‚ sodium carboxymethylcellulose (sodium CMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M (HPMC) as bioadhesive polymers. Physicochemical tests‚ mucoadhesive strength measurement and in vitro drug release study were carried out on two formulations containing carbopol 940 and sodium CMC polymers (Formulations F 4 and F 5 ). We investigated the antibacterial activity of formulation F 5 against Porphyromonas gingivalis using the disk diffusion method on supplemented Brucella agar. Results: Eight gel formulations were prepared. Physical appearance, homogeneity and consistency of F 4 and F 5 were good. Mucoadhesion and viscosity of F 5 (1% carbopol 940 and 3% sodium CMC) was more than F 4 (0.5% carbopol 940 and 3% sodium CMC). Drug release from F 5 was slower. Both of formulations were syringeable through 21 G needle. In the disk diffusion method, F 5 produced significant growth inhibition zones against P. gingivalis. Conclusion: The ideal formulation for the treatment of periodontitis should exhibit high value of mucoadhesion, show controlled release of drug and be easily delivered into the periodontal pocket preferably using a syringe. Based on in vitro release and mucoadhesion studies‚ F 5 was selected as the best formulation.
  3,309 675 10