Users Online: 486
Home Print this page Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Browse articles Submit article Ahead of Print Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

Previous article Browse articles Next article 
Adv Biomed Res 2019,  8:42

The Effect of Three Different Insoles on Ankle Movement Variability during Walking in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability

1 Musculoskeletal Research Centre, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Musculoskeletal Research Centre, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, UK
3 School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, UK

Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saeed Forghany
Musculoskeletal Research Centre, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Post Code: 81746-73461, Isfahan

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/abr.abr_69_19

Rights and Permissions

Background: Increased ankle movement variability has been reported in people with functional ankle instability (FAI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of textured insole, lateral wedge, and textured lateral wedge insole on ankle movement variability during walking in athletes with FAI. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one athletes diagnosed with FAI participated in this before-after study. Kinematic data were collected during four conditions (5 repeated trials per condition): (1) flat ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) insole, (2) textured flat EVA insole, (3) prefabricated lateral heel and sole wedge insole, and (4) textured lateral heel and sole wedge. The analysis of ankle movement variability was conducted during stance phase and 200 ms before initial contact to 200 ms after initial contact. The coefficient of multiple correlations (CMC) was calculated to investigate pattern variability and intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to investigate variability at the points of interest. Results: In terms of pattern variability, wearing textured lateral wedge increased CMC compared to other insoles. However, statistically significant differences were observed only in the frontal plane during stance phase (P < 0.05). In terms of variability at the points of interest, in the frontal plane and in all points of interest, wearing textured lateral wedge increased ICC compared to other insoles. The effects of other insoles on ankle movement variability were inconsistent. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that textured insole has the potential to decrease variability and the use of texture with lateral wedge may more improve variability in athletes with FAI.

Keywords: Ankle, gait, movement, orthotic device

How to cite this article:
Jamali A, Forghany S, Bapirzadeh K, Nester C. The Effect of Three Different Insoles on Ankle Movement Variability during Walking in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability. Adv Biomed Res 2019;8:42

How to cite this URL:
Jamali A, Forghany S, Bapirzadeh K, Nester C. The Effect of Three Different Insoles on Ankle Movement Variability during Walking in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability. Adv Biomed Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 6];8:42. Available from:

  Introduction Top

Lateral ankle sprains are very common in athletic population[1] and occur due to ankle inversion injury,[2] and often, both ligament structures and mechanoreceptors are damaged.[3] Longer term some individuals are left with intact ligaments and mechanical constraints but impaired neuromotor control of the foot and ankle, and this has been termed functional ankle instability (FAI).[4] FAI is a serious condition affecting the quality of life and the performance of professional and amateur athletes.[5] Since the mechanical constraints are intact, it is assumed that recurrent sprains in these cases are due to sensorimotor deficits,[3],[6] and there is good evidence of loss of normal sensory function in FAI. This includes deficits in passive inversion/eversion movement detection,[7] diminished joint position sense,[8] and deficits in inversion during gait.[9],[10],[11],[12]

Researchers have previously reported biomechanical changes in people with chronic ankle sprains during transition time periods between swing and stance phase. Delahunt et al. found a more inverted position of foot during 200 ms before and after initial contact in FAI.[9] Brown et al. found that FAI patients had greater maximum plantar flexion in the 250 ms before initial contact than people with mechanical instability and participants without lateral ankle sprains (LAS) instability.[13]

There are also reports of increased movement variability in cases of chronic ankle sprain (CAI) during variety of tasks.[14],[15],[16],[17] Brown et al.[14] reported that individuals with FAI demonstrated greater ankle frontal plane displacement compared with ankle sprain copers. In another study, Brown et al.[15] showed that individuals with FAI exhibited greater variability in ankle frontal plane motion compared with mechanical ankle instability and ankle sprain coper groups. Kipp and Palmieri-Smith[16] showed increased variability in the frontal plane from 100 ms before touchdown to 200 ms after touchdown during single-leg landing in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

Increases in variability have been associated with gait instability,[18],[19] risk of falling in older people,[19] and lower extremity overuse injuries.[20] The assumption is that greater movement variability places a joint at greater risk of unconstrained loading and thus leads to tissue damage and injury. Greater movement variability may also make control of movements more difficult, since the range of strategies required is likely far greater and the need for a specific strategy less predictable. The increased foot and ankle movement variability in FAI[14],[15],[17] may explain the risk of recurrent ankle sprains even in the absence of mechanical ligament damage. This also suggests that reducing movement variability could be one target of preventative strategies.

The reason for the greater movement variability in FAI is likely multifactorial such as impaired feedback, feedforward, and local sensorimotor deficits. Reduced plantar sensitivity has been reported in cases of FAI,[21],[22] and loss of plantar sensitivity has already been associated with increased movement variability in multiple sclerosis[23] and Parkinson's disease.[24] It follows that any intervention that might alter plantar sensation could reduce ankle movement variability. The use of textured surfaces to change plantar sensory information and performance of motor tasks has received considerable attention, and thus far, evidence is generally positive, while not related to FAI.[25],[26]

While a textured surface alone might offer some potential to reduce movement variability and risk of recurrent sprain, there are already mechanical strategies to achieve this. The use of a wedge placed under the lateral side of the heel and midfoot has been shown to reduce the external inversion moments responsible for the inversion movement that causes the ankle sprain.[27] This intervention could perhaps be further enhanced through the use of a textured surface, thus combining mechanical and sensory components to preventative strategies.

We hypothesized that both a textured surface and a laterally wedged insole would reduce ankle movement variability in people with FAI and that their effects would be accumulative when used together. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of a textured insole, a laterally wedged insole, and a textured laterally wedged insole on ankle movement variability during walking in athletes with FAI.

  Materials And Methods Top


Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Initially, 65 athletes with self-reported ankle instability (>6 months) were recruited from local sports centers. All reported a history of at least 1 significant unilateral inversion ankle sprain within the previous 5 years. All reported that previous sprains required limited weight-bearing or full immobilization for a minimum of 3 days, complained of failure to return to preinjury function, and experienced repeated episodes of ankle sprain. All reported at least 2 episodes of the ankle “giving way” in the past 12 months and a subjective feeling of ankle instability or weakness.[15],[28]

From the 65 athletes, those with FAI were identified using physical examination, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM),[29] and a self-reported questionnaire that assessed the presence of experiences associated with FAI. An experienced physical therapist performed the anterior drawer and talar tilt test to assess mechanical instability of ankle (1–5 scale), and potential participants who demonstrated score 1 (very hypomobile) or score 4 and 5 (loose and very loose, respectively) were excluded.[30] Individuals were also excluded if participants scored >90% in the FAAM activities of daily living score and >80% in the FAAM sports score.[29],[31]

Participants were also excluded if they had taken medication in the past 48 h that could affect cognition and balance or if they had known vestibular, visual, auditory, cognitive, neurological, and any other musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes, and history of fracture or surgery of lower extremities. Exclusion criteria also included receiving ankle rehabilitation and presence of any acute signs and symptoms in the lower extremities (other than giving way or turning over and sprain of affected ankle) within the 3 months before data collection.

After this screening, 21 athletes (11 males) with clinically diagnosed FAI participated in the study. All participants provided written consent to participate, and [Table 1] shows pathology and function-related information.
Table 1: Mean and standard deviation of participants' demographics and function-related information

Click here to view


Four different insoles were compared: (1) a flat 3 mm ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) insole with smooth top surface, (2) prefabricated laterally wedged insole (Salfordinsole, England) with smooth top surface, (3) a 3 mm flat EVA insole with a 1 mm thick textured surface on top, texture comprising a pattern of 10 hemisphere projections per cm2, and (4) prefabricated laterally wedged insole (Salfordinsole, England) with a 1 mm textured layer added to the top surface (same texture as insole number 3) [Figure 1]. All were used in individual shoe sizes. Condition 1 was considered the control condition.
Figure 1: A flat 3 mm ethylene-vinyl acetate insole with smooth top surface (a), prefabricated laterally wedged insole (Salfordinsole, England) with smooth top surface (b), 1 mm thick textured layer added to the top surfaces (c)

Click here to view

Data collection

A seven-camera motion capture system (Qualysis Proreflex, Sweden) was used to obtain three-dimensional kinematic data for the foot and leg (100 Hz). Ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected using a Kistler force plate (1000 Hz) (Kistler Instrument Corp., Amherst, New York, USA). Reflective markers were attached to the head of the first, second, and fifth metatarsals and the posterior calcaneus. Markers were attached to medial and lateral femur epicondyles and medial and lateral malleoli. A rigid cluster of four 14 mm markers was positioned over the lateral aspect of shank.

Familiarization with the insole conditions is fundamental. All participants were allowed to become familiar to laboratory environment, procedure, and different insoles before testing. One relaxed standing trial was performed to define the reference position (0°) of the foot. Several practice walks were conducted to determine a starting position, after which participants completed four test conditions while walking on a 10 m walkway. Five successful walking trials were collected for each of the four insole conditions. Participants were advised to walk at their own normal walking speed during all conditions. The same type of shoes was used for all participants. Elastic lace bands were used and adjusted for the first test condition of each participant and then remained unchanged for all other test conditions. The order of conditions was randomized (5 repeated trials per condition).

Data processing and analysis

Kinematic and force data were exported to Visual3D (C-motion, USA) and a fourth-order Butterworth low-pass filter (cutoff 6 Hz and 15 Hz, respectively) applied to both. Movement was motion of the foot relative to the shank. The calibrated anatomical system technique was adopted to establish a suitably anatomical model of the foot and shank.[32] The origin of the shank coordinate system was midway between medial and lateral femoral epicondyles (knee joint center [KJC]). The vertical axis, z-axis, was the line joining the KJC with the point midway between the medial and lateral malleolus (MMAL and LMAL). The x-axis was orthogonal to z-axis and in the frontal plane defined by MMAL, LMAL, and the z-axis. The y-axis was perpendicular to x- and z-axes. The origin of the foot system was located at the midpoint between MMAL and LMAL. The foot longitudinal axis, y-axis, was the line joining the origin and metatarsal 2 (D2MT). The x-axis was orthogonal to y-axis and laid in a plane defined using the MMAL, LMAL, and D2MT. The z-axis was mutually perpendicular to x and y. Foot-shank angles were calculated using Cardan sequence of sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. The relaxed standing position was used as 0°.

GRF data were used to determine stance and swing phase since the transition between the two is central to LAS. Windows of 200 ms before and after initial contact and initial contact to toe off were identified for all trials.

Between-trial variability of foot-shank (ankle) movement was evaluated using the coefficient of multiple correlations (CMC) and intraclass correlation (ICC). These evaluate variability of ankle rotations time curves and ankle angles at specific gait events, respectively, and are commonly reported measures of kinematic variability.[33] CMC was used to evaluate the variability of ankle movement pattern. Similarity of the ankle movement pattern in five dynamic trials for each intervention was compared by CMC. This was reported in two time windows: (1) initial contact (IC) to toe off (TO) and (2) 200 ms before initial contact to 200 ms after initial contact. In additional, ICC was used to report the movement variability at distinct time points. These time points included 200 ms before initial contact, initial contact, and 200 ms after initial contact.

SPSS version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA) was used for statistical analysis. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to check whether CMC data were normally distributed. Nonparametric test (Friedman) was performed to investigate differences between conditions. All findings were considered statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05.

  Results Top

There was a trend toward increased CMC values (in other word, less movement variability) when wearing both textured insoles compared to insoles without texture but only for movement in the frontal plane [Table 2]. There were statistically significant differences for the frontal plane motion when wearing textured laterally wedged insoles and for IC-TO in comparison with nontextured flat EVA (P = 0.015) and nontextured laterally wedged insole (P = 0.004). The other significant difference was for the sagittal plane motion when wearing textured laterally wedged insoles and for IC-TO in comparison with nontextured laterally wedged insole (P = 0.012).
Table 2: Mean (and standard deviation) and 95% confidence interval of coefficient of multiple correlations of ankle movement during walking in four insole conditions

Click here to view

There was a trend toward increased ICC values (in other word, less movement variability) when wearing both textured insoles compared to insoles without texture but only for angles 200 ms before initial contact [Table 3]. There were no observable trends at for initial contact angles nor angles at 200 ms post initial contact.
Table 3: Intraclass correlation and 95% confidence interval of intraclass correlations of ankle movement at 200 ms before initial contact, initial contact, and 200 ms after initial contact in four insole conditions

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

We investigated the effect of a textured insole, a laterally wedged insole, and a textured laterally wedged insole on ankle movement variability in athletes with FAI. Movement variability is normal and necessary for individual adaptation with personal, task, or environmental constraints during different activities.[34],[35] However, excessive movement variability is associated with an increased risk of injury and pathology.[20],[36] Furthermore, individuals with FAI have increased frontal plane ankle movement variability compared with healthy controls, and this has suggested at one explanation for the recurrent instability, episodes of “giving way,” and reoccurring sprains.[14],[15],[16],[17] The results of this study provide some evidence for texture as a method to reduce frontal plane movement variability when used with a laterally wedged insole but not when used on a flat insole. The fact that this occurred mainly in the frontal plane seems significant because this is the plane in which the recurrent ankle injury occurs. While the results were not unequivocal, the general trend was for reductions of variability in the textured insoles compared to the smooth flat EVA insole and the laterally wedged insole alone.

The only statistically significant result, complemented by the general trend, was for less movement variability when the texture was combined with the laterally wedged insole. Compared to the textured flat insole, the laterally wedged insole likely has an increased contact area in both the medial arch and heel areas of the foot and causes greater rearfoot eversion after initial contact. Neither of these was measured in this study, but these effects are consistency reported for insoles with contours and materials similar to the laterally wedged insole used.[37],[38] This might arguably increase the “dose” of sensory input from the textured surface. The lack of change in movement variability with the laterally wedged insole alone suggests that it is the texture not contact area alone that is important.

According to the sensory reweighting theory, as soon as one sensory input is impaired, the system adapts by adjusting the relative contributions and it allows from other sensory sources.[39] For example, sensory reweighting has been demonstrated in patients with low back pain occurring from paraspinal muscles to ankle-muscle receptors.[40] Impairment in mechanoreceptors and neuromuscular control post ankle sprains has been proposed as one of the main reasons for increased movement variability in FAI.[16] Plantar cutaneous mechanoreceptors are an important source of foot proprioception information,[41] and according to the sensory reweighting theory, enhancements in this could compensate for other deficits. It has been demonstrated that stimulation of the plantar surface of feet by insoles can contribute to sensory reweighting.[25] In this context, we propose that the use of texture and greater contact area from the laterally wedged insoles are the primary modes by which the insoles reduced movement variability.

There are several important limitations to this study. The participants were only exposure to the insoles during the testing session, and neurological responses to the texture may take time to develop. The participants typically took 10 steps in each insole before data were collected. The texture chosen was relatively subtle in that it comprised a compliant material and was low in height. Alternative textures may have different effects. We characterized movement variability over five walking trials. While there is a ceiling effect at some point, arguably more trials would allow a more robust characterization of variability, and thus, increased likelihood of observing any effect should there be one. Likewise, our use of walking poses a relatively low-risk challenge to ankle function, and the capacity for improving variability might be limited. It is also the case that most ankle sprains occur during running or other dynamic activities, where underlying movement variability could be greater.[14],[15],[16],[17] Finally, the use of a single-segment model of the foot is a potential limitation since it does not isolate ankle nor rearfoot kinematics specifically. However, making ground contact is a functional task for the whole foot, and in the first instance, this model was felt to be appropriate. Assuming the results are not an entirely random outcome, that differences in the reported movement variability reflect the ability of the foot model to detect kinematic differences. However, the use of a multisegment foot model would certainly enhance the characterization of any effect of the texture.

  Conclusions Top

The results of this study show that when combined with a laterally wedged insole, texture has the potential to decrease foot movement variability in athletes with FAI.

Financial support and sponsorship

The project was supported by the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

Conflicts of interest

Professor Christopher Nester is a Director and owns equity in a company (Salfordinsole Healthcare Ltd.) that manufacturers the laterally wedged foot orthoses used in this study. There have been no financial or other arrangements between the company and the authors.

  References Top

Ferran NA, Maffulli N. Epidemiology of sprains of the lateral ankle ligament complex. Foot Ankle Clin 2006;11:659-62.  Back to cited text no. 1
Fong DT, Ha SC, Mok KM, Chan CW, Chan KM. Kinematics analysis of ankle inversion ligamentous sprain injuries in sports: Five cases from televised tennis competitions. Am J Sports Med 2012;40:2627-32.  Back to cited text no. 2
Hertel J. Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability. J Athl Train 2002;37:364-75.  Back to cited text no. 3
Hiller CE, Nightingale EJ, Lin CW, Coughlan GF, Caulfield B, Delahunt E. Characteristics of people with recurrent ankle sprains: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2011;45:660-72.  Back to cited text no. 4
Arnold BL, Wright CJ, Ross SE. Functional ankle instability and health-related quality of life. J Athl Train 2011;46:634-41.  Back to cited text no. 5
Witchalls J, Waddington G, Blanch P, Adams R. Ankle instability effects on joint position sense when stepping across the active movement extent discrimination apparatus. J Athl Train 2012;47:627-34.  Back to cited text no. 6
Refshauge KM, Kilbreath SL, Raymond J. Deficits in detection of inversion and eversion movements among subjects with recurrent ankle sprains. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2003;33:166-73.  Back to cited text no. 7
Munn J, Sullivan SJ, Schneiders AG. Evidence of sensorimotor deficits in functional ankle instability: A systematic review with meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport 2010;13:2-12.  Back to cited text no. 8
Delahunt E, Monaghan K, Caulfield B. Altered neuromuscular control and ankle joint kinematics during walking in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint. Am J Sports Med 2006;34:1970-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
Delahunt E, Monaghan K, Caulfield B. Changes in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint during a single leg drop jump. J Orthop Res 2006;24:1991-2000.  Back to cited text no. 10
Monaghan K, Delahunt E, Caulfield B. Ankle function during gait in patients with chronic ankle instability compared to controls. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2006;21:168-74.  Back to cited text no. 11
Abdelraouf OR, Abdel-Aziem AA. Contralateral ankle kinematics during shod walking in subjects with unilateral chronic ankle instability. Beni-Suef University J Appl Sci 2012;1: 21-34.  Back to cited text no. 12
Brown C. Foot clearance in walking and running in individuals with ankle instability. Am J Sports Med 2011;39:1769-76.  Back to cited text no. 13
Brown C, Padua D, Marshall SW, Guskiewicz K. Individuals with mechanical ankle instability exhibit different motion patterns than those with functional ankle instability and ankle sprain copers. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2008;23:822-31.  Back to cited text no. 14
Brown CN, Padua DA, Marshall SW, Guskiewicz KM. Variability of motion in individuals with mechanical or functional ankle instability during a stop jump maneuver. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2009;24:762-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
Kipp K, Palmieri-Smith RM. Principal component based analysis of biomechanical inter-trial variability in individuals with chronic ankle instability. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2012;27:706-10.  Back to cited text no. 16
Kipp K, Palmieri-Smith RM. Differences in kinematic control of ankle joint motions in people with chronic ankle instability. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2013;28:562-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
England SA, Granata KP. The influence of gait speed on local dynamic stability of walking. Gait Posture 2007;25:172-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
Hausdorff JM, Rios DA, Edelberg HK. Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: A 1-year prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1050-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
James CR, Dufek JS, Bates BT. Effects of injury proneness and task difficulty on joint kinetic variability. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:1833-44.  Back to cited text no. 20
Hoch MC, McKeon PO, Andreatta RD. Plantar vibrotactile detection deficits in adults with chronic ankle instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012;44:666-72.  Back to cited text no. 21
Powell MR, Powden CJ, Houston MN, Hoch MC. Plantar cutaneous sensitivity and balance in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability. Clin J Sport Med 2014;24:490-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
Huisinga JM, Mancini M, St George RJ, Horak FB. Accelerometry reveals differences in gait variability between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls. Ann Biomed Eng 2013;41:1670-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
Novak P, Novak V. Effect of step-synchronized vibration stimulation of soles on gait in Parkinson's disease: A pilot study. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2006;3:9.  Back to cited text no. 24
Davids K, Shuttleworth R, Button C, Renshaw I, Glazier P. “Essential noise” – Enhancing variability of informational constraints benefits movement control: A comment on waddington and adams (2003). Br J Sports Med 2004;38:601-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
Palluel E, Nougier V, Olivier I. Do spike insoles enhance postural stability and plantar-surface cutaneous sensitivity in the elderly? Age (Dordr) 2008;30:53-61.  Back to cited text no. 26
Kakihana W, Torii S, Akai M, Nakazawa K, Fukano M, Naito K. Effect of a lateral wedge on joint moments during gait in subjects with recurrent ankle sprain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84:858-64.  Back to cited text no. 27
Delahunt E, Coughlan GF, Caulfield B, Nightingale EJ, Lin CW, Hiller CE, et al. Inclusion criteria when investigating insufficiencies in chronic ankle instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:2106-21.  Back to cited text no. 28
Mazaheri M, Salavati M, Negahban H, Sohani SM, Taghizadeh F, Feizi A, et al. Reliability and validity of the persian version of foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM) to measure functional limitations in patients with foot and ankle disorders. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18:755-9.  Back to cited text no. 29
Ryan L. Mechanical stability, muscle strength and proprioception in the functionally unstable ankle. Aust J Physiother 1994;40:41-7.  Back to cited text no. 30
Hopkins JT, Coglianese M, Glasgow P, Reese S, Seeley MK. Alterations in evertor/invertor muscle activation and center of pressure trajectory in participants with functional ankle instability. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012;22:280-5.  Back to cited text no. 31
Cappozzo A, Catani F, Croce UD, Leardini A. Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: Anatomical frame definition and determination. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 1995;10:171-8.  Back to cited text no. 32
Kadaba MP, Ramakrishnan HK, Wootten ME, Gainey J, Gorton G, Cochran GV. Repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data in normal adult gait. J Orthop Res 1989;7:849-60.  Back to cited text no. 33
Davids K, Glazier P, Araújo D, Bartlett R. Movement systems as dynamical systems: The functional role of variability and its implications for sports medicine. Sports Med 2003;33:245-60.  Back to cited text no. 34
Tavakoli S, Forghany S, Nester CJ. The effect of dual tasking on foot biomechanics in people with functional ankle instability. Gait Posture 2016; 49:364-370.  Back to cited text no. 35
Heiderscheit BC, Hamill J, van Emmerik RE. Variability of stride characteristics and joint coordination among individuals with unilateral patellofemoral pain. J Appl Biomech 2002;18:110-121.  Back to cited text no. 36
Bonanno DR, Zhang CY, Farrugia RC, Bull MG, Raspovic A, Bird AR, et al. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures. J Foot Ankle Res 2011;4 Suppl 1:O10.  Back to cited text no. 37
Jones RK, Zhang M, Laxton P, Findlow AH, Liu A. The biomechanical effects of a new design of lateral wedge insole on the knee and ankle during walking. Hum Mov Sci 2013;32:596-604.  Back to cited text no. 38
Peterka RJ, Loughlin PJ. Dynamic regulation of sensorimotor integration in human postural control. J Neurophysiol 2004;91:410-23.  Back to cited text no. 39
Brumagne S, Cordo P, Verschueren S. Proprioceptive weighting changes in persons with low back pain and elderly persons during upright standing. Neurosci Lett 2004;366:63-6.  Back to cited text no. 40
Do MC, Bussel B, Breniere Y. Influence of plantar cutaneous afferents on early compensatory reactions to forward fall. Exp Brain Res 1990;79:319-24.  Back to cited text no. 41


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Prise en charge pluridisciplinaire des entorses de la syndesmose tibio-fibulaire inférieure
Damien Hasdenteufel,Adrien Diouf,Renaud Guiu
Revue du Podologue. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Previous article  Next article
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials And Me...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded218    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal