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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 35

The First Report on the Frequency of Asymptomatic Proteinuria in Iranian School-aged Children


1 Department of Pediatrics, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Medical Students Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zahra Ghaffarzadeh
Medical Students Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.225923

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Background: Proteinuria is a well-known indicator of renal dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of proteinuria in a sample of healthy Iranian elementary school students using both dipsticks and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) methods. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 478 school students aged 7–9 years who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from Isfahan city, Iran. A clean midstream first-morning urine sample was obtained from each subject. Urine samples were examined by dipstick method, and accordingly, they were reported as negative; trace; 1+; 2+; 3+; and 4+. UACR was determined in samples with positive dipstick proteinuria (defined as trace or greater). Results: This study included 478 students (42.8% boys), with mean age of 7.0 ± 0.4 years. Positive dipstick was detected in 124 (25.9%) cases. The frequency of positive dipstick proteinuria was significantly higher in the girls than boys (29.6% vs. 20.9%, respectively; P = 0.04). In cases with a positive dipstick, 10 (2.1%) cases had UACR 30–300 mg/g. The frequency of UACR of 30–300 mg/g was 1.4% and 2.5% in boys and girls, respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequency of UACR 30–300 mg/g in terms of gender (P = 0.4). None of the subjects had UACR above 300 mg/g. Conclusion: While the frequency of asymptomatic proteinuria varies widely across different studies, we found a higher rate of proteinuria in Iranian children. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to justify large screening program for detecting asymptomatic proteinuria, as a cardinal manifestation of kidney disease, in Iranian children.


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