The relation between serum Vitamin D levels and body antioxidant status in ischemic stroke patients: A case–control study
Laleh Afshari1, Reza Amani2, Farhad Soltani3, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh4, Mohammad Reza Afsharmanesh5
1 Department of Nutrition, Arvand International Division, Faculty of Paramedicine, Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedicine, Health Research Institute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Aneshtesiology, ICU, Golestan Medical Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
5 Department of Biochemistry, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Nutriti on, Faculty of Paramedicine, Health Research Insti tute, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz
Source of Support: Supported by a grant of Vice-chancellor of Research Affairs of Jundishapur University under the Registration No. B-9221., Conflict of Interest: There are no conflicts of interest.
Background: Stroke is the second cause of death among elderly people. Oxidative stress plays an important role in brain damage after stroke. Currently, Vitamin D has been shown as an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of Vitamin D, antioxidant enzymes, and the relation between them in ischemic stroke patients.
Materials and Methods: This case–control study was carried out on 36 patients with ischemic stroke patients and 36 matched subjects as controls. Intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure of sunlight, serum lipid profile, concentrations of serum 25-dihydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH) D), activities of serum superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes were determined.
Results: Severe Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 30% of the patients versus 11% of the controls (P < 0.05). Consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower in patients than that of controls (P < 0.05). Activities of antioxidant enzymes and intake of fruits were positively correlated in stroke patients (P = 0.02). The most potent predictors of stroke risk were hypertension, high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (odds ratios: 3.33, 3.15, and 3.14, respectively, P < 0.05 for all). There was no association between 25(OH) D levels with activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in the two groups.
Conclusion: Ischemic stroke patients have higher prevalence of severe Vitamin D deficiency and lower intakes of fruits and vegetables. Intake of fruits was positive correlated to higher antioxidant enzymes levels. High levels of blood pressure, history of CVD, and high LDL-C levels are the strongest predictors of ischemic stroke.