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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Adv Biomed Res 2014,  3:8

Relative frequency of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus I/II in HIV/AIDS patients


1 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Resident, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Resident, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
4 General Practitioner, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission13-Feb-2013
Date of Acceptance15-Jun-2013
Date of Web Publication09-Jan-2014

Correspondence Address:
Zahra Askarian
P. O. Box 880 Al-Zahra Hospital, Soffe St, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.124635

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  Abstract 

Background: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus HTLV-I/II is a retrovirus that has been associated with different diseases. HTLV-I/II routes of transmissions are exposure to contaminated blood, blood transfusion, needle sharing, breast feeding, and sexual contact. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II in HIV infected patients has not been well characterized in Iran. We conducted a serological survey to determine the relative frequency of HTLV-I/II in HIV+/AIDS and healthy blood donors in Isfahan.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we compare the relative frequency of HTLV-I/II in HIV+/AIDS group (56 persons) with asymptomatic blood donors (57 persons) in Isfahan. Participant completed the questionnaires that include demographic information, age, sex, and sexual partnership during last 6 months, sexual behavior and past history of blood transfusion or other blood products. We confirm the HIV+ status in patients group with western blot test. Evaluation of HTLV-I/II were done using ELISA test with DRAPIO third generation kit. Questionnaire data and laboratory results were analyzed by SPSS18.
Results: During the period of 2010-2011, a total of 56 HIV-infected patients and 57 healthy persons participated in this study. Among HIV positive patients, one person had positive test for HTILV-I/II representing the relative frequency of 1.8%, and in healthy individuals none of them were positive.
Conclusion: In our survey, relative frequency of HTLV-I/II was 1.8% in HIV+ patients. This study reveals that relative frequency of HTLV-I/II in HIV positive patients is considerable but determining the need for screening of HTLV-I/II requires further investigation.

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, HTLV-I/II, Iran


How to cite this article:
Meidani M, Ahmadi N, Jamali B, Askarian Z. Relative frequency of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus I/II in HIV/AIDS patients. Adv Biomed Res 2014;3:8

How to cite this URL:
Meidani M, Ahmadi N, Jamali B, Askarian Z. Relative frequency of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus I/II in HIV/AIDS patients. Adv Biomed Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 14];3:8. Available from: http://www.advbiores.net/text.asp?2014/3/1/8/124635


  Introduction Top


Human T cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-I/II) is a Deltavirus member of Retroviridae family that has been associated with different diseases such as: aggressive T lymphoma and leukemia (in era that virus is endemic); HTLV-I associated mylopathys/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); these are conditions which are inflammatory and autoimmune; HTLV-I associated uveitis (mainly in Japan), HTLV-I associated infective dermatitis (mainly in Jamaica). [1],[2],[3],[4] HTLV-I was first discovered in 1980 in Japan, and about 10-20 million people were infected worldwide. [5] Nevertheless, the reported seroprevalence has been variable depending on geographic era, high risk groups and socio demographic characteristics of the population. [6] High HTLV-I prevalence clusters in the world is southern Japan, the South Pacific, parts of West Africa, part of Southern America, and the Middle East (North east of Iran; Mashhad). HTLV-II is predominant in Native American populations and between intravenous drug users. [7],[8] To avoid HTLV-I/II transmission by transfusion, screening of blood donation for HTLV-I/II infection has been mandatory in several countries: in 1986 in Japan; in 1989 in the United States; in 1990 in Canada. [9] Mother-to-infant transmission; mainly through breastfeeding, sexual transmission; mainly from male-to-female and parenteral transmission (blood transfusion or intravenous drug use) seems to be the major routes of transmission for HTLV-I/II and it varies in deferents geographic area. [6] In high endemic area, because most of the patients that had seropositive test for HTLV-I/II were below 30 years old, it is believed that vertical transmission could have an important role in these patients. However, in nearly half of the cases, the transmission route cannot be identified. [10] Establishing prophylactic rules needs the accurate data of seroprevalence rate, which could help us to decrease the rate of transmission from infected individuals. Some studies in determining the seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II in HIV+/AIDS were done in Mashhad; the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran but in Isfahan it has not been investigated yet. We conducted a serologic survey to determine the relative frequency of HTLV-I/II in HIV+/AIDS patients and healthy blood donors.


  Materials and Methods Top


In this cross-sectional study, we used serum sample of 56 HIV+/AIDS and 57 healthy blood donors and then we compared the relative frequency of HTLV-I/II in this group with asymptomatic blood donors. The participants were selected by simple enumeration from those who were take part in counseling center for behavioral disease in Isfahan. We gathered the entire sample needed for the study in 2010-2011. We explained all participants that this study is to identify relative frequency of a virus that is in the same family of HIV. Participants completed the questionnaires that included: age, sex, sexual behavior, sexual partnership during last 6 months, sexual behavior, and past history of blood transfusion and other blood products. We got 5cc of venues blood sample and serum was separated then plasma sample were store in -20°C before testing. All blood specimens were tested in an anonymous fashion and labeled by specific numeric code to provide subjects' secretly. We confirm the HIV+ status in patients group with western blot test. Evaluation of HTLV-I/II were done using ELISA test with DRAPIO third generation kit. Questionnaires and laboratory results were analyzed by SPSS18.


  Results Top


During the period of 2010-2011; a total of 56 HIV-infected patients and 57 healthy persons participated in this study. The mean age in patient group was 37 ± 8.7 and in healthy group was 39.3 ± 9.1. There is no significant differences between two groups (P = 0.64). Forty-seven persons in patient group (83.9%) and 47 persons in healthy group were males. Nine persons in patient group and 10 persons in healthy group were females. Among HIV positive patients, one of them tested positive for HTILV-I/II representing the relative frequency of 1.8%; and in healthy individual none of them were positive for HTLV-I/II.


  Discussion Top


Many parts of the world are endemic for HTLV-I and high endemic region is defined as the era with the seroprevalence of more than 2%. [5],[8] In the USA, the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection is estimated to varies from 0.016 to 0.1 among those without obvious risk factors, such as being in endemic era, IVDU. [2] HTLV infection is generally seen in northeast of Iran including Mashhad and neighbor cities. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I in Mashhad, the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province, is reported 3% and so is considered as an endemic era for HTLV-I/II. In 2002, screening test for HTLV infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) represent a prevalence of 3.4% in Neyshabour, the third largest city of the province. [11] "In Mozambique (MZ) country, an overall HTLV-I/II prevalence of 2.3% was observed, and increased with age. Regional variation in prevalence of HIV and HTLV-I/II was observed; 32.2%, 65.5%, and 44% of individuals tested HIV-positive in Northern, Central, and southern MZ, respectively, and 2.4%, 3.9%, and 0.9% tested HTLV-I positive in same regions". [12] "In Brazil, moderately high seroprevalences were found for both HIV and HTLV-I/II infections, HIV/HTLV-I co-infection being of special concern''. [13] In Argentina, HTLV-I/II prevalence rates of infection detected 32.1%, 16.9%, and 4.6%, respectively. [14] In all studies that were done in Isfahan, it seems that seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II is not very high in different high risk group. [15],[16] For example, Meidani et al reported the seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II in IV drug users 2.7% in Isfahan in 2009. [15] Besides in moayedie study that was done in 1998, the seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II was 2.27% in thalassemic patients in Isfahan. [16] In the current survey, relative frequency of HTLV-I/II was 1.8% in HIV positive patients. The main limitation of our study was the relatively small sample size.


  Conclusion Top


This study reveals that relative frequency of HTLV-I in HIV positive patient is considerable but determining the need for screening of HTLV-I/II requires further investigation. In our opinion, in epidemiologic studies we not only need more cases but we should also consider the trend of increasing prevalence in different time period.

 
  References Top

1.Sertöz R, Turhan A, Bozkurt H, Samlýog lu P, Deg irmenci A, Aydýnok Y, et al. Investigation of anti-HTLV I/II seroprevalence in healthy blood donors in Izmir region, Turkey. Mikrobiyol Bul 2010;44:579-84.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Zucker-Franklin D, Pancake BA. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 tax among American blood donors. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1998;5:831-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Dias-Bastos MR, Oliveira CD, Carneiro-Proietti AB. Decline in prevalence and asymmetric distribution of human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 in blood donors, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1993 to 2007. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2010;43:615-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Tulius Silva M, de Melo Espíndola O, Bezerra Leite AC, Araújo A. Neurological Aspects of HIV/Human T lymphotropic Virus Coinfection. AIDS Rev 2009;11:71-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Magri MC, Brigido LF, Rodrigues R, Morimoto HK, Ferreira JL, Caterino-de-Araujo A. Phylogenetic and similarity analysis of HTLV-1 Isolates from HIV-Coinfected patients from the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012;28:110-4.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6. Martín-Dávila P, Fortún J, López-Vélez R, Norman F, Montes de Oca M, Zamarrón P, et al. Transmission of tropical and geographically restricted infections during solid-organ transplantation. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008;21:60-96.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Madeleine MM, Wiktor SZ, Goedert JJ, Manns A, Levine PH, Biggar RJ, et al. HTLV-I and HTLV-II world-wide distribution: Reanalysis of 4,832 immunoblot results. Int J Cancer 1993;54:255-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Rafatpanah H, Farid R, Golanbar G, Jabbari Azad F. HTLV-I Infection: Virus structure, immune response to the virus and genetic association studies in HTLV-I-infected individuals. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006;5:153-66.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Abbaszadegan MR, Gholamin M, Tabatabaee A, Farid R, Houshmand M, Abbaszadegan M. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 among blood donors from Mashhad, Iran. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:2593-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Barrientos A, Lopez M, Sotomayor C, Pilleux L, Calderón S, Navarrete M, et al. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among patients with malignant hematological diseases in south Chile. J Med Virol 2011;83:745-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Hedayati-Moghaddam MR, Fathimoghadam F, Eftekharzadeh Mashhadi I, Soghandi L, Bidkhori HR. Epidemiology of HTLV-1 in Neyshabour, Northeast of Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2011;13:424-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Caterino-de-Araujo A, Magri MC, Costa EA, Manuel RC. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) in individuals from public health centers in Mozambique. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010;26:559-61.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Guimarães ML, Bastos FI, Telles PR, Galvão-Castro B, Diaz RS, Bongertz none V, et al. Retrovirus infections in a sample of injecting drug users in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil: Prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes, and co-infection with HTLV-I/II. J Clin Virol 2001;21:143-51.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.de los Angeles Pando M, Biglione MM, Toscano MF, Rey JA, Russell KL, Negrete M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other viral co-infections among young heterosexual men and women in Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004;71:153-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Meidani M, Farzaneh SH, Ajami A, Hasanzadeh A. Seroprevalence of HTLV1, 2 Virus Among Injection Drug Addicts in Isfahan. J Shaheed Sadoughi Univ Med Sci 2009;17:286-90.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Moayedi B, Nafisi A, Torabizade K. Contamination of HTLV1/2 In patients with thalassemia and its relation to blood levels of intake. Res Med Sci 1998;4:29-32.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



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