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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 67

Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview


Department of Biochemistry, Mahathma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pillayarkuppam, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Ramesh Ramasamy
Department of Biochemistry, Mahathma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pillayarkuppam, Manapet Post, Puducherry 605 402
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.125848

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Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria.


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