Users Online: 736
Home Print this page Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Browse articles Submit article Ahead of Print Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
Previous article Browse articles Next article 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Adv Biomed Res 2014,  3:138

Platelet-rich plasma application in chondrogenesis


1 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Paramedical School, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Langeroud, Iran
2 Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Biology, Molecular and Developmental Division, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission23-Feb-2013
Date of Acceptance10-Mar-2013
Date of Web Publication25-Jun-2014

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Mardani
Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.135156

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous derivative of whole blood, has been recently used in surgical treatment. PRP contains growth factors including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and also bioactive proteins that influence the healing of tendon, ligament, muscle, and bone. This article describes the current clinical applications of PRP in chondrogenesis. This study reviews and evaluates the studies that have been published in the field of chondrogenesis. All aspects of using PRP in chondrogenesis are reviewed.

Keywords: Chondrogenesis, growth factors, platelet-rich plasma


How to cite this article:
Kabiri A, Esfandiari E, Esmaeili A, Hashemibeni B, Pourazar A, Mardani M. Platelet-rich plasma application in chondrogenesis. Adv Biomed Res 2014;3:138

How to cite this URL:
Kabiri A, Esfandiari E, Esmaeili A, Hashemibeni B, Pourazar A, Mardani M. Platelet-rich plasma application in chondrogenesis. Adv Biomed Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Dec 9];3:138. Available from: http://www.advbiores.net/text.asp?2014/3/1/138/135156


  Introduction Top


During the last decade, the term platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has received wide and growing attention in the field of regenerative medicine. [1] PRP is defined as the portion of the plasma fraction of blood having a platelet concentration above the baseline value. [2],[3] The significance behind using PRP is due to the abundance of growth factors and protein in a well-prepared PRP concentrate involved in tissue engineering. [4] There are some advantages of using PRP. First of all, it is easy to obtain PRP from patient's own blood. Secondly, by regulating the processing technique and activation protocol, it is possible to control the dose of growth factors released on activation. [5] PRP has been used in medical fields such as oral and maxillofacial surgery to enhance hard and soft tissue healing and it has gained attention in orthopedic and sports medicine as a treatment for various problems, including bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon pathologies. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10] Due to the poor regenerative capability of articular cartilage and currently limited clinical treatments, recently cartilage repair, through tissue engineering, has been considered as an alternative approach.

There are two promising cell sources for cartilage tissue engineering: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes. Both can be differentiated in 3D culture [11],[12] in the presence of growth factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor-1, and bone morphogenic protein-6 (BMP-6). [13]

The importance behind using PRP in cartilage tissue engineering field is that PRP is rich in growth factors, including those that promote proliferation of chondrogenic cells and secretion of cartilaginous matrix, such as TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), [14] insulin-like growth factor (IGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). [15],[16],[17] There are three main types of vesicles detected in a platelet: 1) a-granules, 2) β lysosomes, and 3) dense-core granules. Many of the key ingredients such as growth factors are stored in a-granules. [18] The PRP growth factors and their role in chondrogenesis are given in [Table 1].
Table 1: Growth factors present in platelet-rich plasma and their roles in chondrogenesis

Click here to view


This review will provide an overview of the studies featuring the role of PRP in chondrogenesis of chondrocytes and stem cells.


  Preparation of PRP Top


In all available PRP techniques, blood is collected with an anticoagulant such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid a mixture of citrate, theophylline, adenosine, and dipyridamole (CTAD) [26] and then it is immediately processed by centrifugation. The time for platelet concentrate preparation is about an hour. The first centrifugation step is designed to separate the blood into three layers: Red blood cells (RBCs) are located at the bottom, acellular plasma or platelet-poor plasma (PPP) is at the top, and a "buffy coat" layer appears in between, in which platelets are concentrated. The goal of the subsequent steps is to discard both the RBC layer and the PPP to collect only the buffy coat layer. Finally, the obtained platelet concentrate is applied to the desired site. [27]

PRP was applied in three forms, including fresh platelets, activated platelets by freeze -thaw, and through thrombin cycles in research and clinical trial. The concentration of the growth factors released was quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The highest concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) were found in frozen platelets while the maximum TGF-β1 was detected in thrombin-activated platelets. [28]


  Effects of PRP on The Chondrocytes' Proliferation and Matrix Synthesis Top


To investigate the effect of PRP on chondrogenesis, it is necessary to consider the changes that occur on the chondrogenic markers such as SOX9, aggrecan, and collagen type II. A summary of all the studies is presented in [Table 2]. It has been shown that using 10% PRP in place of 10% fetal bovine serum in the dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) for culturing porcine chondrocytes in alginate beads produced more proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and DNA. [29] The increased production of GAG was seen when 3% PRP was mixed with gelatin hydrogel and then injected intra-articularly to the rabbit model of osteoarthritis (OA). [30]
Table 2: PRP effects on the chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo

Click here to view


Interestingly, PRP in the form of medium supplement in vitro and in the gel form that encapsulated cell brick stimulated the synthesis of collagen type II by chondrocytes [29],[31] and caused upregulation of the SOX9 gene expression and when was used in monolayer as a medium supplement or was mixed with hydrogel. [32],[33] it has the same effects. The proliferative effect of PRP on chondrocytes from different sources such as bovine articular and nasal septal chondrocytes, [34] rabbit articular chondrocytes, [35] and sheep articular chondrocytes [36] was reported even when PRP was used in the form of platelet lysate. However, the effect of PRP on matrix accumulation was not confirmed in some studies. [34],[35] These inconsistent results may be due to the activation form of PRP or the source of chondrocytes. The 10% PRP also stimulates upregulation of TGF-β, VEGF, and chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) by rabbit chondrocytes. [37] This indicates that culturing chondrocytes in the presence of PRP may alter their gene expression profile. PRP can be considered as a successful injectable carrier to study the chondrocytes' differentiation potential. Results showed that PRP as a gel could provide ideal conditions to preserve the chondrocyte phenotype in vivo and in vitro.[38],[39]


  The Effects of PRP on The Chondrogenesis and Proliferation of MSCs Top


Due to the problems related to the autologous chondrocyte implantation method [40] for cartilage defect treatment, much attention has been paid to find other cell sources for cartilage tissue engineering. MSCs are a promising cell population for regeneration of mesenchymal tissues such as cartilage. The main chondrogenic inducer MSCs belong to TGF-β family. [41],[42] Due to the complexities involved in the safety and efficacy of either exogenous or genetically induced growth factor delivery, investigators are trying to find [43] substitutions such as PRP. The core ingredient of PRP is TGF-β1. [44] A summary of all the studies is presented in [Table 3].
Table 3: PRP effects on the MSCs in vitro and in vivo

Click here to view


Injection of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) with PRP into the knees of rat model of OA produced more collagen type II and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in articular cartilage, promoted proliferation, adhesion, and migration of MDSCs, and finally enhanced the integration of the transplanted cells in the repair process. [45] The effect of human PRP on the chondrogenesis of human subchondral progenitor cells in pellet culture system has been established. At the same time, the upregulation of cartilage hypertrophic marker collagen type X was detectable. [46] It seems that presence of different components of inductive medium such as dexamethasone, insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), and ascorbic acid for chondrogenic induction of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) [47] and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) (unpublished data) is necessary. The gene expression of aggrecan and SOX9 were enhanced when bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) were in the presence of 10% buffered PRP [16] This shows that probably activation step is not mandatory. Application of 10% PRP as a medium supplement in monolayer culture of BMSCs and ADSCs caused upregulation of collagen type II, aggrecan, and SOX9. When PRP was used as a scaffold for BMSCs and ADSCs, it produced the hyaline cartilage. [48] The mentioned results show the positive effects of PRP in chondrogenesis of MSCs from different tissues.


  The Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of PRP on The Chondrocytes Top


The anti-inflammatory effects of PRP on the chondrocytes seem to correlate with the upregulation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). It is reported that CB1 agonists have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and reduce joint damage in animal models of arthritis. [33],[49],[50] The anti-inflammatory effects of PRP are due to the reduction in the transactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the critical regulator of the inflammatory process. Activated PRP has an enhanced concentration of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a). These growth factors, by disrupting the transactivation of NF-κB, are the key ingredients that contribute to PRP anti-inflammatory effects. The second mechanism is decreasing the expression of inflammatory enzymes cycloxygenase 2 and 4 (COX-2 and COX-4). [51] Decreasing the gene expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) 4 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2 is another mechanism used by PRP to avoid inflammation in chondrocytes. [52] It was shown that PRP could have pro-inflammatory effect on the human chondrocytes after the initial reduction of COX-2; [53] may be, PRP has a dual effect on the chondrocytes' response to inflammatory conditions.


  Conclusion Top


There are several potential advantages of using PRP in tissue engineering, especially in chondrogenesis. PRP can keep the phenotype and differentiation potential of chondrocytes in terms of proliferation, and synthesis of proteoglycan and collagen type II.

It seems that PRP induce chondrogenesis of MSCs through the secretion of various growth factors, especially TGF-β, since its concentration is high.

The limitation of using PRP is due to two reasons. Firstly, there is not a standard preparation protocol and various platelet activation methods sometimes give different results that do not support each other, thereby making it difficult to compare them. Secondly, there is lack of knowledge about the growth factors and their concentration at which they exert PRP chondrogenic effect. To solve these issues, it is necessary to determine the concentration of PRP growth factors in each study. Since MSCs' chondrogenesis induced by PRP led to production of hypertrophic cartilage, a better understanding of the mechanisms of chondrogenesis is necessary. For OA, however, it needs further investigation.

 
  References Top

1.Arora NS, Ramanayake T, Ren YF, Romanos GE. Platelet-rich plasma: A literature review. Implant Dent 2009;18:303-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Mehta S, Watson JT. Platelet rich concentrate: Basic science and current clinical applications. J Orthop Trauma 2008;22:432-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): What is PRP and what is not PRP? Implant Dent 2001;10:225-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Anitua E, Sanchez M, Orive G, Andia I. The potential impact of the preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF) in different medical fields. Biomaterials 2007;28:4551-60.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Leitner GC, Gruber R, Neumuller J, Wagner A, Kloimstein P, Hocker P, et al. Platelet content and growth factor release in platelet-rich plasma: A comparison of four different systems. Vox Sang 2006;91:135-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Froum SJ, Wallace SS, Tarnow DP, Cho SC. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on bone growth and osseointegration in human maxillary sinus grafts: Three bilateral case reports. Int J Periodont Restorat Dent 2002;22:45-53.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Petrungaro PS. Using platelet-rich plasma to accelerate soft tissue maturation in esthetic periodontal surgery. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2001;22:729-32,34,36.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Lopez-Vidriero E, Goulding KA, Simon DA, Sanchez M, Johnson DH. The use of platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopy and sports medicine: Optimizing the healing environment. Arthroscopy 2010;26:269-78.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Zhai W, Wang N, Qi Z, Gao Q, Yi L. Platelet-rich plasma reverses the inhibition of tenocytes and osteoblasts in tendon-bone healing. Orthopedics 2012;35:e520-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Han J, Meng H, Tang J, Li S, Tang Y, Chen Z. The effect of different platelet-rich plasma concentrations on proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells in vitro. Cell Prolif 2007;40:241-52.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Awad HA, Halvorsen YD, Gimble JM, Guilak F. Effects of transforming growth factor beta1 and dexamethasone on the growth and chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells. Tissue Eng 2003;9:1301-12.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Ansar MM, Esfandiariy E, Mardani M, Hashemibeni B, Zarkesh-Esfahani SH, Hatef M, et al. A comparative study of aggrecan synthesis between natural articular chondrocytes and differentiated chondrocytes from adipose derived stem cells in 3D culture. Adv Biomed Res. 2012;1:24.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Sheyn D, Pelled G, Zilberman Y, Talasazan F, Frank JM, Gazit D, et al. Nonvirally engineered porcine adipose tissue-derived stem cells: Use in posterior spinal fusion. Stem Cells 2008;26:1056-64.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Nikolidakis D, Jansen JA. The biology of platelet-rich plasma and its application in oral surgery: Literature review. Tissue Eng Part B Rev 2008;14:249-58.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Fortier LA, Barker JU, Strauss EJ, McCarrel TM, Cole BJ. The role of growth factors in cartilage repair. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2011;469:2706-15.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Mishra A, Tummala P, King A, Lee B, Kraus M, Tse V, et al. Buffered platelet-rich plasma enhances mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2009;15:431-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Sun Y, Feng Y, Zhang CQ, Chen SB, Cheng XG. The regenerative effect of platelet-rich plasma on healing in large osteochondral defects. Int Orthop 2010;34:589-97.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Wrotniak M, Bielecki T, Gazdzik TS. Current opinion about using the platelet-rich gel in orthopaedics and trauma surgery. OrtopTraumatol Rehabil 2007;9:227-38.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Grimaud E, Heymann D, Redini F. Recent advances in TGF-beta effects on chondrocyte metabolism. Potential therapeutic roles of TGF-beta in cartilage disorders. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2002;13:241-57.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Fan H, Hu Y, Qin L, Li X, Wu H, Lv R. Porous gelatin-chondroitin-hyaluronate tri-copolymer scaffold containing microspheres loaded with TGF-beta1 induces differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vivo for enhancing cartilage repair. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2006;77:785-94.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Pufe T, Harde V, Petersen W, Goldring MB, Tillmann B, Mentlein R. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces matrix metalloproteinase expression in immortalized chondrocytes. J Pathol 2004;202:367-74.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Ferrara N, Gerber HP, LeCouter J. The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nat Med 2003;9:669-76.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Ataliotis P. Platelet-derived growth factor A modulates limb chondrogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. Mech Dev 2000;94:13-24.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Solchaga LA, Penick K, Goldberg VM, Caplan AI, Welter JF. Fibroblast growth factor-2 enhances proliferation and delays loss of chondrogenic potential in human adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue engineering Part A 2010;16:1009-19.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Kabiri A, Esfandiari E, Hashemibeni B, Kazemi M, Mardani M, Esmaeili A. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in transwell culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012;424:234-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Yokota M, Tatsumi N, Tsuda I, Nishioka T, Takubo T. CTAD as a universal anticoagulant. J Anal Methods Chem 1900;25:17-20.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Dohan Ehrenfest DM, Rasmusson L, Albrektsson T. Classification of platelet concentrates: From pure platelet-rich plasma to leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin. Trends Biotechol 2009;27:158-67.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Burmeister SL, Hartwig D, Limb GA, Kremling C, Hoerauf H, Muller M, et al. Effect of various platelet preparations on retinal muller cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:4881-6.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Akeda K, An HS, Okuma M, Attawia M, Miyamoto K, Thonar EJ, et al. Platelet-rich plasma stimulates porcine articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix biosynthesis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006;14:1272-80.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Saito M, Takahashi KA, Arai Y, Inoue A, Sakao K, Tonomura H, et al. Intraarticular administration of platelet-rich plasma with biodegradable gelatin hydrogel microspheres prevents osteoarthritis progression in the rabbit knee. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2009;27:201-7.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Zhu J, Cai B, Ma Q, Chen F, Wu W. Cell bricks-enriched platelet-rich plasma gel for injectable cartilage engineering-an in vivo experiment in nude mice. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2012 [In Press].  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Spreafico A, Chellini F, Frediani B, Bernardini G, Niccolini S, Serchi T, et al. Biochemical investigation of the effects of human platelet releasates on human articular chondrocytes. J Cell Biochem 2009;108:1153-65.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Lee HR, Park KM, Joung YK, Park KD, Do SH. Platelet-rich plasma loaded hydrogel scaffold enhances chondrogenic differentiation and maturation with up-regulation of CB1 and CB2. J Control Release 2012;159:332-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Kaps C, Loch A, Haisch A, Smolian H, Burmester GR, Haupl T, et al. Human platelet supernatant promotes proliferation but not differentiation of articular chondrocytes. Med Biol Eng Comput 2002;40:485-90.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Choi YC, Morris GM, Sokoloff L. Effect of platelet lysate on growth and sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular chondrocyte cultures. Arthritis Rheum 1980;23:220-4.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Drengk A, Zapf A, Stürmer EK, Stürmer KM, Frosch KH. Influence of platelet-rich plasma on chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation of chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Cells Tissues Organs 2009;189:317-26.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Park SI, Lee HR, Kim S, Ahn MW, Do SH. Time-sequential modulation in expression of growth factors from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the chondrocyte cultures. Mol Cell Biochem 2012;361:9-17.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Wu W, Chen F, Liu Y, Ma Q, Mao T. Autologous injectable tissue-engineered cartilage by using platelet-rich plasma: Experimental study in a rabbit model. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007;65:1951-7.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Wu W, Zhang J, Dong Q, Liu Y, Mao T, Chen F. Platelet-rich plasma-A promising cell carrier for micro-invasive articular cartilage repair. Med Hypotheses 2009;72:455-7.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Dhinsa BS, Adesida AB. Current clinical therapies for cartilage repair, their limitation and the role of stem cells. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2012;7:143-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Mehlhorn AT, Niemeyer P, Kaschte K, Muller L, Finkenzeller G, Hartl D, et al. Differential effects of BMP-2 and TGF-beta1 on chondrogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells. Cell Prolif 2007;40:809-23.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Hashemibeni B, Goharian V, Esfandiari E, Sadeghi F, Fasihi F, Alipur R, et al. An animal model study for repair of tracheal defects with autologous stem cells and differentiated chondrocytes from adipose-derived stem cells. J Pediatr Surg 2012;47:1997-2003.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.Cheng NC, Estes BT, Awad HA, Guilak F. Chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived adult stem cells by a porous scaffold derived from native articular cartilage extracellular matrix. Tissue Eng Part A 2009;15:231-41.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.Weibrich G, Kleis WK, Hafner G, Hitzler WE. Growth factor levels in platelet-rich plasma and correlations with donor age, sex, and platelet count. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2002;30:97-102.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Mifune Y, Matsumoto T, Takayama K, Ota S, Li H, Meszaros LB, et al. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on the regenerative therapy of muscle derived stem cells for articular cartilage repair. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2013;21:175-85.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Kruger JP, Hondke S, Endres M, Pruss A, Siclari A, Kaps C. Human platelet-rich plasma stimulates migration and chondrogenic differentiation of human subchondral progenitor cells. J Orthop Res 2012;30:845-52.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.Feng X, Tian S, Sun K, Zhang J, Zhang C, Liu S, et al. Effect of platelet lysate on chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi 2011;25:1250-5.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Xie X, Wang Y, Zhao C, Guo S, Liu S, Jia W, et al. Comparative evaluation of MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue seeded in PRP-derived scaffold for cartilage regeneration. Biomaterials 2012;33:7008-18.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.Lee HR, Park KM, Joung YK, Park KD, Do SH. Platelet-rich plasma loaded in situ-formed hydrogel enhances hyaline cartilage regeneration by CB1 upregulation. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2012;100:3099-107.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.Wu CC, Chen WH, Zao B, Lai PL, Lin TC, Lo HY, et al. Regenerative potentials of platelet-rich plasma enhanced by collagen in retrieving pro-inflammatory cytokine-inhibited chondrogenesis. Biomaterials 2011;32:5847-54.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.Bendinelli P, Matteucci E, Dogliotti G, Corsi MM, Banfi G, Maroni P, et al. Molecular basis of anti-inflammatory action of platelet-rich plasma on human chondrocytes: Mechanisms of NF-kappa B inhibition via HGF. J Cell Physiol 2010;225:757-66.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.van Buul GM, Koevoet WL, Kops N, Bos PK, Verhaar JA, Weinans H, et al. Platelet-rich plasma releasate inhibits inflammatory processes in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Am J Sports Med 2011;39:2362-70.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Pereira RC, Scaranari M, Benelli R, Strada P, Reis RL, Cancedda R, et al. Dual effect of platelet lysate on human articular cartilage: A maintenance of chondrogenic potential and a transient pro-inflammatory activity followed by an inflammation resolution. Tissue Eng Part A 2013 [In Press].  Back to cited text no. 53
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Allogeneic platelet rich plasma serves as a scaffold for articular cartilage derived chondroprogenitors
Elizabeth Vinod,Deepak Vinod Francis,Soosai Manickam Amirtham,Solomon Sathishkumar,P.R.J.V.C Boopalan
Tissue and Cell. 2019; 56: 107
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Intra-articular Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma Is Superior to Hyaluronic Acid or Saline Solution in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Triple-Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Kuan-Yu Lin,Chia-Chi Yang,Chien-Jen Hsu,Ming-Long Yeh,Jenn-Huei Renn
Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery. 2019; 35(1): 106
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Use of Ultrasound-Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection of the Sacroiliac Joint as a Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain
Devin Y Broadhead,Hannah E Douglas,Laurie M Bezjian Wallace,Patrick J Wallace,Sarah Tamura,Kyle C Morgan,Douglas E Hemler
Military Medicine. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Progress and Applications of Polyphosphate in Bone and Cartilage Regeneration
Yan Wang,Min Li,Pei Li,Haijun Teng,Dehong Fan,Wennan Du,Zhiliang Guo
BioMed Research International. 2019; 2019: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 The use of PRP injections in the management of knee osteoarthritis
Brendan O’Connell,Nicholas Martin Wragg,Samantha Louise Wilson
Cell and Tissue Research. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Meta-analysis Comparing Platelet-Rich Plasma vs Hyaluronic Acid Injection in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
Yanhong Han,Hetao Huang,Jianke Pan,Jiongtong Lin,Lingfeng Zeng,Guihong Liang,Weiyi Yang,Jun Liu
Pain Medicine. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Interventional radiology techniques for pain reduction and mobility improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis
D. Filippiadis,G. Charalampopoulos,A. Mazioti,E. Alexopoulou,T. Vrachliotis,E. Brountzos,N. Kelekis,A. Kelekis
Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Platelet-Rich Fibrin Scaffolds for Cartilage and Tendon Regenerative Medicine: From Bench to Bedside
Silvia Barbon,Elena Stocco,Veronica Macchi,Martina Contran,Francesca Grandi,Alessio Borean,Pier Parnigotto,Andrea Porzionato,Raffaele De Caro
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(7): 1701
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Autologous platelet rich fibrin as a scaffold for chondrocyte culture and transplantation: An in vitro bovine study
Elizabeth Vinod,Deepak Vinod Francis,Tripti Jacob,Soosai Manickam Amirtham,Solomon Sathishkumar,Praghalathan Kanthakumar,Vinay Oommen
Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Current Concepts and Future Directions of Minimally Invasive Treatment for Knee Pain
Daryl T. Goldman,Rachel Piechowiak,Daniel Nissman,Sandeep Bagla,Ari Isaacson
Current Rheumatology Reports. 2018; 20(9)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Amorphous, Smart, and Bioinspired Polyphosphate Nano/Microparticles: A Biomaterial for Regeneration and Repair of Osteo-Articular Impairments In-Situ
Werner Müller,Meik Neufurth,Shunfeng Wang,Maximilian Ackermann,Rafael Muñoz-Espí,Qingling Feng,Qiang Lu,Heinz Schröder,Xiaohong Wang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(2): 427
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on pain, function and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis patients: a before-and-after study and review of the literature
Marcos Edgar Fernández-Cuadros,Olga Susana Pérez-Moro,María Jesús Albaladejo-Florín,Beatriz Entrambasaguas-Estepa,Rubén Algarra-López
MOJ Orthopedics & Rheumatology. 2018; 1(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Intraarticular injection autologous platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow concentrate in a goat osteoarthritis model
Zhen Wang,Chenjun Zhai,Hao Fei,Junzheng Hu,Weiding Cui,Zhen Wang,Zeng Li,Weimin Fan
Journal of Orthopaedic Research®. 2018; 36(8): 2140
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Pharmakotherapie bei Arthroseschmerzen
T. A. Nees,M. Schiltenwolf
rheuma plus. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Could Platelet-Rich Plasma Be a Clinical Treatment for Horses With Laminitis?
Jorge U. Carmona,Wilson A. Gómez,Catalina López
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2018; 61: 46
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Pharmakotherapie bei Arthroseschmerzen
T. A. Nees,M. Schiltenwolf
Der Schmerz. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Platelet lysate as a novel serum-free media supplement for the culture of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
Maria C. Naskou,Scarlett M. Sumner,Anna Chocallo,Hannah Kemelmakher,Merrilee Thoresen,Ian Copland,Jacques Galipeau,John F. Peroni
Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2018; 9(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Growth Factors Contribute to Stem Cell Differentiation in Musculoskeletal Regeneration
Yun Qian,Qixin Han,Wei Chen,Jialin Song,Xiaotian Zhao,Yuanming Ouyang,Weien Yuan,Cunyi Fan
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2017; 5
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Responders to Platelet-Rich Plasma in Osteoarthritis: A Technical Analysis
Christophe Milants,Olivier Bruyère,Jean-François Kaux
BioMed Research International. 2017; 2017: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Injectable Biological Treatments for Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Maxwell E. Weinberg,Daniel James Kaplan,Hien Pham,David Goodwin,Andrew Dold,Ernest Chiu,Laith M. Jazrawi
JBJS Reviews. 2017; 5(4): e2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 A Prospective Study Comparing Platelet-Rich Plasma and Local Anesthetic (LA)/Corticosteroid in Intra-Articular Injection for the Treatment of Lumbar Facet Joint Syndrome
Jiuping Wu,Jingjing Zhou,Chibing Liu,Jun Zhang,Wei Xiong,Yang Lv,Rui Liu,Ruiqiang Wang,Zhenwu Du,Guizhen Zhang,Qinyi Liu
Pain Practice. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Evaluation of platelet-rich plasma gel potential in acceleration of wound healing duration in patients underwent pilonidal sinus surgery: A randomized controlled parallel clinical trial
Saeed Mohammadi,Shirzad Nasiri,Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi,Ashraf Malek Mohammadi,Mohsen Nikbakht,Mahdi Zahed Panah,Hiva Safar,Shayan Mostafaei,Amir Hossein Norooznezhad,Ahmad Reza Soroosh,Kamran Alimoghaddam,Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh
Transfusion and Apheresis Science. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Trace element and cytokine concentrations in patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP): A case control study
Laura Hildebrand,Timo Gaber,Peter Kühnen,Rolf Morhart,Heinz Unterbörsch,Lutz Schomburg,Petra Seemann
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2017; 39: 186
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 An overview of platelet products (PRP, PRGF, PRF, etc.) in the Iranian studies
Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat,Marzieh Babaee,Seyed Mansour Rayegani,Zahra Hashemi,Amir Ali Hamidieh,Parviz Mojgani,Hossein Fouladi Vanda
Future Science OA. 2017; : FSO231
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Evaluation of wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer using platelet-rich plasma gel: A single-arm clinical trial
Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi,Behnam Molavi,Saeed Mohammadi,Mohsen Nikbakht,Ashraf Malek Mohammadi,Shayan Mostafaei,Amir Hossein Norooznezhad,Ali Ghorbani Abdegah,Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh
Transfusion and Apheresis Science. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Combined treatment with platelet-rich plasma and insulin favours chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in three-dimensional collagen scaffolds
Maria Giovanna Scioli,Alessandra Bielli,Pietro Gentile,Valerio Cervelli,Augusto Orlandi
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Natural-Based Nanocomposites for Bone Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: A Review
Sandra Pina,Joaquim M. Oliveira,Rui L. Reis
Advanced Materials. 2015; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Efficacy of Intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review
Carlos J. Meheux,Patrick C. McCulloch,David M. Lintner,Kevin E. Varner,Joshua D. Harris
Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
Previous article  Next article
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Preparation of PRP
Effects of PRP o...
The Effects of P...
The Anti-Inflamm...
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2188    
    Printed30    
    Emailed2    
    PDF Downloaded488    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 28    

Recommend this journal