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BRIEF REPORT
Adv Biomed Res 2014,  3:136

Evaluation of effect of continuous positive airway pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass on cardiac de-airing after open heart surgery in randomized clinical trial


1 Department of Anaesthesia, Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Chamran Heart Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Pharmacologist, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission30-Apr-2013
Date of Acceptance19-Nov-2013
Date of Web Publication28-May-2014

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Gholamreza Massoumi
Chamran Heart Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.133280

Clinical trial registration IRCT2013043013181N1

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  Abstract 

Background: Cardiac and pulmonary veins de-airing are of the most important steps during open heart surgery. This study evaluates the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on air trapping in pulmonary veins and on quality of de-airing procedure.
Materials and Methods: This randomized prospective double blind clinical trial conducted on 40 patients. In the control group: During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the ventilator was turned off and adjustable pressure limit (APL) valve was placed in SPONT position. In CPAP group: During CPB, after turning the ventilator off, the flow of oxygen flow was maintained at the rate of 0.5 L/min and the APL valve was placed in MAN position on 20 mbar. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) weaning, the patients were observed for air bubbles in left atrium by using transesophageal echocardiography.
Results: The mean de-airing time after the start of mechanical ventilation in CPAP group (n = 20) was significantly lower than the control group (n = 20) (P = 0.0001).
The mean time of the left atrium air bubbles occupation as mild (P = 0.004), moderate (P = 0.0001) and severe (P = 0.015) grading was significantly lower in CPAP group.
Conclusions: By CPAP at 20 mbar during CPB in open heart surgery, de-airing process can be down in better quality and in significantly shorter time.

Keywords: Cardiopulmonary bypass, continuous positive airway pressure, de-airing, heart surgery


How to cite this article:
Mansour M, Massodnia N, Mirdehghan A, Bigdelian H, Massoumi G, Alavi ZR. Evaluation of effect of continuous positive airway pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass on cardiac de-airing after open heart surgery in randomized clinical trial. Adv Biomed Res 2014;3:136

How to cite this URL:
Mansour M, Massodnia N, Mirdehghan A, Bigdelian H, Massoumi G, Alavi ZR. Evaluation of effect of continuous positive airway pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass on cardiac de-airing after open heart surgery in randomized clinical trial. Adv Biomed Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Oct 23];3:136. Available from: http://www.advbiores.net/text.asp?2014/3/1/136/133280


  Introduction Top


Cardiac and pulmonary veins de-airing are of the most important steps during open heart surgery. [1],[2] The trapped air in heart chambers and pulmonary veins during open heart surgery is expelled in order to prevent air emboli. [3] Air emboli can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, cerebral complications and renal and pulmonary failure. [4],[5],[6]

Different techniques of de-airing have been used to both expel the air from heart chambers and prevent air emboli, including: Carbon dioxide insufflations at the site of surgery, rapid shaking of the patient by the surgeon at the end of the surgery, head down position of the patient, venting of heart chambers and ascending aorta. [4],[7],[8]

Our clinical experiment revealed that in those patients who underwent open heart surgery such as; aorta and/or mitral and/or tricuspid valve replacement, after initial total de-airing of heart chambers and pulmonary veins, air bubbles was observed again in the left atrium through transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) monitoring as the left ventricle (LV) contractions were started during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This complication is due to trapped air bubbles in pulmonary veins despite primary de-airing. [9],[10] This resulted in prolonged weaning time, cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure especially in the right heart. [3]

This study evaluates the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on air trapping in pulmonary veins and on the de-airing procedure. There is no study on the effect of CPAP on the de-airing process. Thus, this study was planned to address the above issue and to assess the application of CPAP in order to reduce the risk of air trapping and the related complications of CPB and air embolization following open cardiac surgery.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study was approved ethically and scientifically in Isfahan University of medical sciences research committee. This is a randomized prospective double blind clinical trial conducted on 40 patients (d = 0.2). The study was performed in 2012 in martyr Chamran heart hospital. The inclusion criteria were: (1) Patients candidate for aorta and/or mitral valve with/without tricuspid valve replacement surgery, (2) ejection fraction >40%, (3) patients without history of previous heart surgery, esophageal surgery, dysphasia and odynophagia.

The applied exclusion criterion was: Intra-aortic balloon pump requirement while weaning from CPB.

Patients satisfying inclusion criteria were informed about the whole procedure and signed consent was obtained. Patients were randomly assigned to control and CPAP group (n = 20) through the table of random numbers. Anesthesiologist, the echo cardiographer and statistical analyst were blinded to both groups. Both groups were visited by anesthesiologist and received identical premedication one night prior the surgery. Patients were monitored in the operation room for pulse oximetry, electrocardiogram, invasive blood pressure measuring, temperature, urine output, central venous pressure and capnography. Patients were anesthetized through standard manner in both CPAP and control group. The anesthesia machine was Drager (Fabius). Initial setting for respiratory ventilation was: (1) Tidal volume: 8-10 ml/kg (2) ventilation frequency: 10-12 breath/min (3) maximum ventilation pressure: 25 cm H 2 O (4) inspiratory/expiratory ratio: 1:2 (5) positive end expiratory pressure: 5 cm H 2 O (6) relative inspiratory pause: 10% (7) fresh gas flow: 100% oxygen. This setting was adjusted to achieve end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide about 35-40 mmHg in capnography. The TEE probe was placed in oesophagus and primary echocardiography (midesophageal four chamber view) was performed 10 min after the induction of anesthesia and before administration of heparin. The probe remained in esophagus throughout the whole surgery. After administration of heparin and reaching activated clotting time of over 460 s, cannulation of the ascending aorta and superior and inferior vena cava was performed in all patients. Surgery was performed using pulseless Roller pump. During CPB, the mean arterial pressure was kept between 60 and 90 mmHg, mild hypothermia was used, the hemoglobin concentration was kept over 7 g/dl and PH was controlled using α-stat.

Control group

During the surgery and CPB, the ventilator (Drager, Fabius) was turned off and the flow of fresh air was totally ceased and adjustable pressure limit (APL) valve was placed in SPONT position.

CPAP group

During CPB, after turning the ventilator off, the flow of oxygen flow was maintained at the rate of 0.5 L/min and the APL valve was placed in MAN position on 20 mbar (20 hectopascal, 15 mmHg).

During the surgery

The vent catheter was placed in right upper pulmonary vein in order to keep the surgical site free of blood.

After completion of the surgery, de-airing procedure and weaning from CPB was started under TEE monitoring if the serum potassium level was less than 6 mmol/dl, normothermic state was established, the arterial blood gas was normal and no cardiac arrhythmia was detected. The lungs were ventilated. The Vent catheter was placed in LV apex and aortic root and primary de-airing of these areas was performed. The aortic clamp was released afterwards. The patient was placed in the head down position, venous return of CPB was gradually reduced by the surgeon, the cardiac chambers were gradually filled and cardiac ejection was begun. The patient was continually observed for air emboli in left atrium using TEE and de-airing was continued if needed. De-airing procedure was continued until the left atrium was free from air emboli.

For the 1 st time for evaluation of severity of air bubbles occupation in the left atrium we purpose new classification into 3 grades on TEE:

Mild: If air bubbles occupied less than 25% of the left atrium area.

Moderate: If air bubbles occupied 25-50% of the left atrium area.

Severe: If air bubbles occupied more than 50% of the left atrium area.

During the survey, the patient demographic data was recorded in a check list as well as duration of de-airing after starting mechanical ventilation of lungs, duration of de-airing after cardiac ejection and duration of the left atrium air bubble occupation graded as mild, moderate, severe in the left atrium.

After weaning from CPB and hemodynamic stability, the heparin was reversed with protamine at 1:1.5 ratio of the initial heparin dose. After completion of the surgical procedure, the patients were transferred to intensive care unit under monitoring.

The data was analyzed by SPSS softwar version 17, using Chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for numerical variables. P < 0.05 was considered to be statically significant.


  Results Top


There were no significant differences in demographic parameters in both groups [Table 1]. None of the patients were excluded from the survey during the study and all were included [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Participants Flow Diagram

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Table 1: Comparison of demographic parameters between two groups

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The mean de-airing time after the start of mechanical ventilation in CPAP group was significantly lower than the control group (P = 0.0001) [Table 2].
Table 2: Comparison of various stage of the de-airing process between two groups

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The mean de-airing time after the start cardiac ejection in CPAP group was significantly lower compared with the control group (P = 0.0001) [Table 2].

The mean air bubble occupation time in the left atrium with mild (P = 0.004), moderate (P = 0.0001) and severe (P = 0.015) grading was significantly lower in CPAP group [Table 2].


  Discussion Top


Despite the standard de-airing techniques in open heart surgery, the air will enter the left atrium from pulmonary veins as the heart is allowed to contract. [9],[10],[11] We decided to evaluate the effect of CPAP on the amount of trapped air in pulmonary veins and de-airing quality.

Our study demonstrated that positive pressure in alveoli and follow this in pulmonary veins during open heart surgery will significantly decrease the amount of trapped air in pulmonary veins, leading to better de-airing in a short time.

In a study conducted by Faleh Al-Rashidi et al. in 2009, [3] 20 patients were assigned to control group (10 patients: Pleural cavities unopened, dead space ventilation during CPB) and CPAP group (10 patients: Pleural cavities open, ventilator disconnected during CPB, staged perfusion, and ventilation of lungs during de-airing) and the quality of de-airing was evaluated. Their study showed that de-airing quality was better in the control group. [3] In contrast to their study, our survey demonstrated that during open heart surgery, CPAP significantly increased the de-airing quality compared to when the ventilator was turned off.

This is the first study on the effects of CPAP on de-airing during CPB in open heart surgery. CPAP increases intra-thoracic pressure, which prevents the air entering from the surgical field into lung bloodstream. During CPB weaning especially after ventricular ejection beginning, air bubbles enter the heart chambers mainly through the pulmonary veins, therefore increased intra-thoracic pressure by CPAP during CPB stops the air bubble from entering into the pulmonary veins.

As mentioned above, the duration of the de-airing was shorter in the CPAP group than in the control group in the severe, moderate and mild grades.

It was observed that duration of the de-airing process from ventilation and ventricular ejection beginning until complete de-airing were significantly lower in CPAP group.

One of the important findings in this study was that in a number of patients in the CPAP group undergoing CPAP during CPB the amount of air bubbles in left atrium never reached the severe grade.

We demonstrated that this is an easy, simple and cost-effective way for facilitating de-airing and reducing the risk of air emboli.

We hope that this study hold a way in open heart surgery for reducing of air trapping and reduce air emboli and other complication that related to air embolism.


  Conclusion Top


By CPAP at 20 mbar (20 hectopascal, 15 mmHg) during CPB in open heart surgery, de-airing process can be down in better quality and in significantly shorter time.

 
  References Top

1.Walther T, Dewey T, Borger MA, Kempfert J, Linke A, Becht R, et al. Transapical aortic valve implantation: Step by step. Ann Thorac Surg 2009;87:276-83.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Bugge M, Lepore V, Dahlin A. The de-airing clamp in cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1997;11:189-90.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Al-Rashidi F, Blomquist S, Höglund P, Meurling C, Roijer A, Koul B. A new de-airing technique that reduces systemic microemboli during open surgery: A prospective controlled study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009;138:157-62.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Svenarud P, Persson M, Van Der Linden J. Efficiency of a gas diffuser and influence of suction in carbon dioxide deairing of a cardiothoracic wound cavity model. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;125:1043-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Bucerius J, Gummert JF, Borger MA, Walther T, Doll N, Falk V, et al. Predictors of delirium after cardiac surgery delirium: Effect of beating-heart (off-pump) surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004;127:57-64.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Tovar EA, Del Campo C, Borsari A, Webb RP, Dell JR, Weinstein PB. Postoperative management of cerebral air embolism: Gas physiology for surgeons. Ann Thorac Surg 1995;60:1138-42.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Gundry SR. Facile left ventricular deairing by administration of cardioplegia into the left ventricular vent. Ann Thorac Surg 1998;66:2117-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Stuart JW, Joseph SS. Decision Making and Perioperative Transesophageal Echocardiography. In: J.A. Kaplan, editor. Cardiac anesyhesia, 6 th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. p. 383.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Tingleff J, Joyce FS, Pettersson G. Intraoperative echocardiographic study of air embolism during cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg 1995;60:673-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Orihashi K, Matsuura Y, Sueda T, Shikata H, Mitsui N, Sueshiro M. Pooled air in open heart operations examined by transesophageal echocardiography. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:1377-80.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.van der Linden J, Casimir-Ahn H. When do cerebral emboli appear during open heart operations? A transcranial Doppler study. Ann Thorac Surg 1991;51:237-41.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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